The Kidney From Normal Development to Congenital Disease

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Contributors

Numbers in parenthesis indicate page numbers on which authors contributions begin.

Dale R. Abrahamson (221) Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, The University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, United States of America. Jonathan Bard (139, 181) Department of Biomedical Sciences, Edinburgh University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom. Hallgrmur Benediktsson (149) Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Calgary Medical School, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Nicholas Bockett (411) Cancer Genetics Laboratory, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. Cathy Boucher (433) Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Addenbrokes Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Pierre Bouchet (87) Department Informatique, Universit Henri Poincar, Vandoeuvre ls Nancy, France. Thomas J. Carroll (19, 343) Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America. Eun Ah Cho (195) University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America. Jamie Davies (165) Department of Anatomy, Edinburgh University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom. Igor B. Dawid (119) National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.

Gregory R. Dressler (195) Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America. Iain Drummond (61) Massachusetts General Hospital, Charleston, Massachusetts, United States of America. Michael Eccles (411) Cancer Genetics Laboratory, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. Marie Claire Gubler (395) Hospital Necker Enfants Malade, Paris, France. Benedikt Hallgrmsson (149) Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Calgary Medical School, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Monika H. Hermanns (377) Nephro-Urology Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom. Doris Herzlinger (51) Departments of Physiology and Urology, Cornell University Medical College, New York, New York, United States of America. Christer Holmberg (475) Hospital for Sick Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. Neil A. Hukriede (119) National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America. Hannu Jalanko (475) Hospital for Sick Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. Richard G. James (51) Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

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xCcile Jeanpierre (395) Hospital Necker-Enfants Malade, Paris, France. Elizabeth A. Jones (93) University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom. Sharon Karp (211) Division of Nephrology, Indiana University Medical Center, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America. Anzhelika Listopadova (51) Cornell University Medical College, New York, New York, United States of America. Arindam Majumdar (61) Massachusetts General Hospital, Charleston, Massachusetts, United States of America. Andrew P. McMahon (343) Department of CMB, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America. Bruce Molitoris (211) Division of Nephrology, Indiana University Medical Center, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America. Sharon Mulroy (433) Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Addenbrokes Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Kirsi Sainio (75, 181, 327) Program of Developmental Biology, University of Helsinki, Finland. Richard Sandford (433) Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Addenbrokes Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Hannu Sariola (181) Institute of Biomedicine, University of Helsinki, Finland. Lisa M. Satlin (267) Pediatric Nephrology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America. Lauri Saxn (xi) University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. Thomas M. Schultheiss (51) Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America. George J. Schwartz (267) Pediatric Nephrology, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, New York, United States of America. Helen Skaer (7) Department of Zoology, Cambridge University, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

ContributorsCherie Stayner (411) Harvard Institues of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America. Karl Tryggvason (475) Division of Matrix Biology, MBB Kavolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. William vant Hoff (461) Institute of Child Health, University College London Medical School, London, United Kingdom. Marie D. Vazquez (87) Department de Cytologie, Histologie et Embryologie Faculte de Medicine, Vandoeuvre ls Nancy, France. Peter D. Vize (1, 19, 87, 149) Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Cheryl Walker (451) Department of Carcinogenesis, University of Texas/MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, Texas, United States of America. John B. Wallingford (19) Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States of America. Ruixue Wang (221) Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, United States of America. Brant M. Weinstein (119) National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America. Simon J.M. Welham (377) Nephro-Urology Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom. Paul J.D. Winyard (377, 433) Nephro-Urology Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom. Craig B. Woda (267) Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America. Adrian S. Woolf (251, 377, 487) Nephro-Urology Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom. Hai T. Yuan (251) Nephro-Urology Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Foreword

The vertebrate kidney is a complex organ constructed from four synchronously developing cell lineages; the nephric mesenchyme, the pronephric-duct-derived epithelial collecting-duct system, and the vascular and neuronal systems. Its developmental richness has resulted in nephrogenesis becoming an excellent model system for exploring such key issues as: the problem of transitory and vestigial organs, programmed cell death (apoptosis), early determination (protodifferentiation), directed movements of cells and cell clusters (nephric duct), epithelial branching morphogenesis (ureter tree), cell aggregation and how a mesenchymeepithelial transition can lead to the production of complex tubular structures with polarized epithelial cells(nephron formation). The underlying control mechanisms include the morphogenetic interactions between the various cell lineages and the characterization of the signalling pathways that regulate kidney development. Indeed, almost the entire set of genomic and postgenomic control mechanisms can be exploited in this model system. The history of nephrogenesis is, as for many biological systems, the history of its methodology. The first years of the last century witnessed a thorough light microscopic description of the chain of kidney development, and this morphological analysis was completed in the mid-century by electron microscopy. Over the last two decades, the localization of developmentally regulated genes using in situ hybridisation and immunochemistry has given us complementary molecular anatomy (Davies and Brandli, 2002). Experimental manipulations to investigate the development of the excretory system were introduced in the late 1930s by Gruenwald (Gruenwald, 1937), work that followed Rienhoffs avian kidney culture studies in the early 1920s (Rienhoff, 1922). The next technical breakthrough came in the 1950s when Grobstein managed to separate the main tissue components of the metanephric kidney, the ureterderived epithelial bud and the mesenchymal blastema, and

was able to study their inductive interactions using his transfilter technique (Grobstein, 1956). Today we can build on this technology to understand gene function by using blocking antibodies and antisense technology, and can integrate such studies with analysis of animals carrying targeted mutations that lead to gene loss and overexpression. Such animals can provide models of pediatric kidney disorders and so help develop treatments for them. When I reviewed our knowledge of nephrogenesis and its control mechanism in the 1980s (Saxn, 1987), little was known of the molecular basis of kidney development. Over the last 15 or so years, our molecular understanding has increased beyond measure, and it is clear that the number of genes participating in just nephron formation and epithelial branching is far greater than we could ever have imagined (Davies and Brandli, 2002). An overall schema describing the many aspects of nephrogenesis does however remain to be constructed and this requires us to integrate our knowledge across the spectrum of kidney research. The present volume is thus most welcome and will undoubtedly stimulate further work on nephrogenesis at both the basic and applied levels.Lauri Saxn University of Helsinki

ReferencesDavies, J. A., and Brandli, A. W. The Kidney Development Database, http://golgi.ana.ed.ac.uk./kidhome.html. Gruenwald, P. (1937). Zur Entwicklungsmechanik der Urogeital-systems Beim Huhn Roux. Arch 136:786813. Reinhoff, W. F. (1922). Development and growth of the metanephros or permanent kidney in chick embryos. Johns Hopkins Hosp. Bull. 33:392406. Grobstein, C. (1956). Trans-fliler induction of tubules in mouse metanephrogenic mesenchyme. Exp. Cell Res. 10:424440. Saxn, L. (1987). Organogenesis of the Kidney. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

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Preface

In 1987, Lauri Saxn of Helsinki University published a short book entitled Organogenesis of the Kidney which summarized what was then known about kidney development, much of it based on the work of the author and his collaborators. In the last 15 years, with many other European and American l