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Text of THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN REWARDS AND TEACHERS' silva_mary_lourett_philo.pdfTHE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN REWARDS AND TEACHERS' MOTIVATIONAL ORIENTATIONS TOWARDS PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

Mary Lourett Philo D'Silva

A dissertation submitted in partial fblfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Science

Faculty of Cognitive Science and Human Development UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK

July 1997

Administrator

DECLARATION

No portion of the work referred to in this dissertation has been submitted in support

of an application for another degree of qualification of this or any other university or

institution of higher learning.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I am very grateful to the following special people who have made my pursuit of

learning possible and meaningful:

- Dr Ibrahim Ahmad Bajunid, the Director of Institute Aminuddin

Baki, Genting Highlands, for the inspiration given to be 'life-long

learners'.

- Tuan Haji Noor Bakar, the manager of the program, for the

guidance and advice given.

- Professor Dr Razali AroR the Dean of the Faculty of Cognitive

Science, UNIMAS, Sarawak, for showing concern and interest in

our program.

- Dr Farid Meziane, for being a wonderfully caring person, a good

teacher, a superb adviser and valuable friend.

- Dr Abang A. Ridman, for listening to all my troubles and

encouraging me to keep going on.

- Dr Hazrnan Shah & Dr Maheswary Kandasamy, for the help given

when 1 was starting on my thesis project.

- a1 the other lecturers who taught us, for giving us guidance and

help.

God the Almighty had put some very caring and loving relatives in my life to enable

me to continue with my studies :

- My mother, Christina George,

- My husband, Canute Januarius Magimay

- My mother-in-law, Mary Lourdes Magimay,

- My children, Jeanelle, Jeremiah Joseph and Jessica Anne,

- My brothers, Godwin and Bernard,

- My sisters Susan, Annet and Priya,

- My brother-in-law, Father Ferdinand Magiinay,

- My sister-in-law, Lydwina Magimay,

The moral support and encouragement given have been very instrumental in

making me persevere through this one year

T also wish to extend my deepest gratitude to the following people

- Mr Mahalingam of University Malaya, for patiently translating my

questionnaire and helping me in many matters

- My dear friend Ding Eng Na, for the loving concern shown

towards Jeanelle and for guiding her in her studies in my absence

- My friends in Sekolah Menengah Batu Lapan, Puchong, for being

my 'guineapigs' without hesitation

- And especially to Ms Bridget Jayatilaka and Mrs Vasuthevan, for

being supportive and very helpful

- A11 the teachers who participated by answering the research

questionnaire.

- My fellow cohort members for making this year of study a very

eventful and tnemorable one.

DEDICATION

'This thesis is dedicated to the memory o f my late father, Rejohn George D7Silva, who

has and will always be my inspiration to go that extra mile and be somebody different

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Contents PAGE NO

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . 111

IDEDICATlON v LIST OF TABLES ix LIST OF FIGURES x

I

ABSTRACT xi ABSTRAK xiii CIIAPTER INTRODUCTION 1

1 1.1 Background 1 1.2 Statement of the Problem 4 1.3 Purpose of the Study 6 1 4 Objectives 7 1 5 Hypothesis 7 1.6 Limitations and Assumptions of the Study 8

2 LITERATURLE REVIEW 9 2.1 Introduction 9 2.2 The Importance of Teacher Development 10 2 3 The Concept of Motivation 16

2.3.1 The Measurement of Motivation 17 2 3.2 Theories on Motivation 20

2.3.2.1 Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs 2 1 2.3.2.2 Alderfer's ERG Theory 23 2.3.2.3 Herzberg's Two Factor Theory of 24

Motivation 2 3.2.4 Achievement Motivation Theory 27 2.3 2 5 Cognitive Theories of Motivation 28 2 3.2.6 Recent Theories 3 5

2 3 3 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 36 2.3 4 Summary 3 8

2 4 Motivational Orientations 39 2.5 Rewards 44

2.5 1 Reward Philosophy 44 2 5 2 Areas for Non-financial Motivation 45

2 5 2 1 Achievement 4 5 P

2.5.2.2 Recognition 46 2.5 2.3 Responsibility 46

2.5.3 Rewards and Incentives 49 2 5 4 Controversy 50 2.5 5 Rewards Found in Teaching 5 1 2.5.6 Research on Job Satisfaction and Rewards System 52

in Malaysia 3 MF,THODS AND PROCEDURES 5 4

3.1 Introduction 5 4

3 2 Design of Study 54 3.3 Theoretical and Conceptual Models of the Study 5 5 3.4 Sample 56 3.5 Development of the Instrument 5 7 3 6 Validation 58 3.7 Collection of Data 5 8 3.8 Analysis of Data 5 9

3.8.1 Factor Analysis 59 3.8.2 Pearson's Correlation 60

4 RESIJLTS AND DISCUSSION 6 1 4.1 Introduction 6 1 4 2 Socio-Demographic Characteristics 6 1

4 2.1 Gender of Teacher 62 4.2.2 Age of Respondent 62 4.2.3 Marital Status 63 4.2 4 Academic Qualification 64 4.2.5 Teaching Experience 6 5

4.3 Factor Analysis 66 4.3.1 Motivational Orientation Scores 66 4 3.2 Rewards Score 76

4.3.2.1 Reliability Score 76 4.3 2.2 Factor Analysis on Rewards 7 8

4.4 Relationships of Selected Variables 8 1 4.4.1 Socio-demographic Variables 8 1

4.4.1.1 Gender 8 2 4 4 1.2 Age 83 4.4.1 3 Marital Status 83 4.4.1.4 Academic Qualiecation 8 3 4 4.1 .5 Teaching Experience 84

4.4.2 Reward Variables 84 4 4 2. B Financial Gains 8 5 4.4.2.2 Recognition and Praise 85 4.4 2 3 Benefits 85 4.4.2 4 Career Development 8 6 4.4 2.5 Personal Improvement 8 6 4.4.2.6 Self-esteem and Respect 8 7 4 4 2.7 Summary 8 7

7

4.4.3 Correlations between Intrinsic & Extrinsic Rewards and Positive/Negative Motivational 87 Orientations

5 CONCLUSIONS. INTERPRETATIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 89 5.1 Introduction 8 9 5.2 Results 8 9

5.2.1 Socio-demographic Profile 8 9 5.2.2 Findings from Factor Analysis 8 9

5.2.2.1 Motivational Orientations 5.2.2.2 Rewards Preferences

5.2.3 Relationships Between Selected Variables 5.2.3.1 Socio-demographic Relationships 5.2.3.2 Rewards

5.3 Mag or Conclusions and Interpretations 5.3.1 Motivational Orientations of the Teachers

Towards Professional Development 5.3.2 Extrinsic and Intrinsic Rewards Affecting

Teachers' Motivational Orientations 5.3.3 Relationships Between Rewards and Motivational

Orientations 5.4 Implications 5.5 Recommendations for Further Research BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES A : The English Version of the Questionnaire B : The Bahasa Melayu Translation of the Questionnaire C : The Factor Loading Scores for Motivational Orientation D : The Factor Loading Scores for the Rewards Items E : Letters of Permission

LIST OF TABLES

Title Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory Motivational Orientations Interpretations based on Guilford's Rule of Thumb Gender of Teacher Age of Teacher Marital Status Academic Qualifications Teaching Experience Factor I - Social Welfare Factor 2 - Escape and Stimulation Factor 3 - Social Relationship Factor 4 - Professional Advancement Factor 5 - Cognitive Interest Factor 6 - External Expectations Factor 7 - Personal Goal Factor 8 - Intellectual Interest Factor 9 - Learning Activity Factor 10 - Department Directives Reliability Coefficients of Motivational Orientation Factors Correlation Coefficients of Chosen Factors Reliability Coefficients of Combined Factors Seven Factor Model for Motivational Orientations List of Reward Items Used for Reliability Analysis Reward Factors Reliability Analysis on Reward Factors Rotated Factor Matrix Reliability Coefficients for Reward Types Relationships between Motivational Orientations & Socio- demographic variables Correlations between Rewards & Motivational Orientations Most Significant Reward Correlation CoeEcients Between Motivational Orientations & Wewad Types

Page No. 25 44 60 62 62 63 64 6 5 67 67 6 8 69 69 70 70 7 2 7 1 72 72 74 74 7 5 76 7 8 79 8 0 8 1

LIST OF FIGURES

Title A Generalised Model of the Basic Motivation Process Model of Motivation OrganisationaP Link Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs A Hierarchy of Work Motivation The Porter-Lawler Motivation Model Theoretical Model of the Study Conceptual Model of the Study

Page No. 10 17 20 22 22 3 1 5 5 5 6

ABSTRACT

This study examined the relationship between rewards and teachers7

motivational orientations towards professional development. The study sought to

answer three major questions :

1. What are the motivational orientations of the teachers towards professional

development?

2. What are the rewards that affect teachers' interests in professional development?

3. What is the nature of the relationship between extrinsic/intrinsic rewards and

teachers' motivational orientations towards professional development?

A three-part questionnaire was used in the study . Part 1 consisted of questions

socio-demographic details. Part 2 consisted of questions designed to assess

the motivational orientations of the teachers participating in this study. The questions

in Part 3 determined which rewards were important to the teachers.

Two hundred and twenty-seven school teachers from the district of Puchong

the population of the study. Teachers7 motivational orientations were found

be of two types namely, positive and negative. Positive motivational orientations

rised of 'Professional and Intellectual' factors whilst negative motivational

ions comprised of 'Escape, Stimulation a