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The Trait Perspective on Personality From Freud, psychoanalysis and the un-measurable unconscious to rock solid traits and characteristics

The Trait Perspective on Personality

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The Trait Perspective on Personality. From Freud, psychoanalysis and the un-measurable unconscious to rock solid traits and characteristics. The Trait Perspective. People have tried to classify and label people’s personalities for thousands of years It all started with the Ancient Greeks - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of The Trait Perspective on Personality

  • The Trait Perspective on PersonalityFrom Freud, psychoanalysis and the un-measurable unconscious to rock solid traits and characteristics

  • The Trait PerspectivePeople have tried to classify and label peoples personalities for thousands of years

    It all started with the Ancient GreeksLabeled people and personality in terms of humors or the type of body fluid flowing in a person4 typesBlood Sanguine cheerful and passionateBlack Bile Melancholic unhappy and depressedYellow Bile Choleric angry and hot-tempered Phlegm Phlegmatic dull and unemotional

  • Identifying TraitsEventually people moved on from humor to body type as a measurement of personality

    However, most psychologists realized that this was an oversimplified way of looking at personality

    So they went about finding new ways to define personality

  • TraitA relatively stable set of characteristics that influences your thoughts, feelings, and behaviorBelieved to be found in your Genes and DNATrait vs. StatesWhat is the Difference??trait = stable and consistent over timestate = a temporary emotional condition dependent on situation and motiveMay have trait of calmness but be in a state of anxietyUNDERSTAND THE DIFFERENCE!!

  • Objective Tests

    a questionnaire where people respond to different items attempting to measure aspects (traits) of their personalityYes-no, true-false, agree-disagreeAlso called Personality InventoriesHow do we measure or find out our personality traits?

  • MMPIMinnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory:the most widely used personality inventory test.567 questionsOriginally used to identify emotional/mental disorders.

    Now used for screening purposes.

  • Advantages and Disadvantages of Objective TestsGet standard answers to standardized questions However, contain transparent questionsOften will include lie detectorsSocial desirability bias people might state what they wish were true rather than what IS trueBAD !!! Objective Tests dont tell us WHY we behave the way we do they just tell us HOW we behave

  • The Theories Behind the Tests

  • Gordon Allports Trait TheoryBelieved traits were inherited but influenced by experienceBelieved some traits were more important than others

    Central Traits or Source TraitsEasily recognized and have a strong influence on personalityexample competitiveness, generosity, independence

    Secondary Traits or Surface TraitsMore specific to certain situations and have less effect on personalitytraits like personal styles and preferences (particular styles of clothing or types of music that affect behavior in fewer situations)

    Allport believed in total there were around 16,000 different types of traits

  • Raymond Cattells Sixteen TraitsBelieved that Allport went to far with his traitsIdentified only 16 fundamental traits that all people possesEach trait is represented on a continuum (scale) and they are found in every person to some degree on the continuumTo measure these traits Cattell used a test called the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF for short)However, many psychologists still thoughtthis was still too many traits16 personality factors

  • Hans Eysenck: A simpler Trait Model

    3 major traitsIntroversion ExtraversionAre people outward or inward focused?NeuroticismEmotional instability or stabilityPsychoticismCold and hostile, or warm and concerned with others

    The combination of these produced 4 basic personality types

  • Introverted-NeuroticExtraverted-NeuroticIntroverted-StableExtraverted-Stable

  • The Big Five - Five-Factor Model (FFM)Openness (to experience) imaginative, curious, intellectual, open to nontraditional values vs. conforming, practical, conventional Sample Openness itemsI am full of ideas. - I am quick to understand things. - I have a rich vocabulary. I have a vivid imagination. I prefer practical ideas (reversed) - I do not have a good imagination. (reversed) - I have difficulty understanding abstract ideas. (reversed) 16 to many - - 3 to fewConscientiousness organized reliable, hardworking Sample Conscientiousness itemsI am always prepared. - I am exacting in my work. - I follow a schedule. - I get chores done right away. - I like order. - I leave my belongings around. (reversed) - I make a mess of things. (reversed) - I often forget to put things back in their proper place. (reversed)

  • Agreeableness Forgiving, generous, trustingSample Agreeableness itemsI am interested in people. - I feel others emotions. - I have a soft heart. - I am not really interested in others. (reversed) - I feel little concern for others. (reversed) - I insult people. (reversed)Extraversion Active, energetic, affectionate Sample Extraversion itemsI am the life of the party. - I don't mind being the center of attention. - I feel comfortable around people. - I start conversations. - I am quiet around strangers. (reversed) - I don't like to draw attention to myself. (reversed) - I don't talk a lot. (reversed) - I have little to say. (reversed)

  • Neuroticism (our level of emotional instability/stability) anxious, tense, vulnerable Sample Neuroticism itemsI am easily disturbed. - I change my mood a lot. - I get irritated easily. - I get stressed out easily. - I am relaxed most of the time. (reversed) - I seldom feel blue. (reversed)

    Remember by = OCEAN

  • Personality by Birth OrderModern theoriesMyers-Briggs

  • Personality Testshttp://theinkblot.com/index.htm online inkblot test fun to take but dont make much of the resultshttp://www.personalitypathways.com/type_inventory.html get a myers-briggs personality type good test with good summarieshttp://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/JTypes2.asp Jung personality profile great, in-depth testhttp://similarminds.com/cattell-16-factor.html Cattells 16 Factor Testhttp://www.matthewbarr.co.uk/simpsons/ - find out what Simpson you most resemble