THE WEST AND THE CHANGING WORLD BALANCE CHAPTER 15: THE END OF POST-CLASSICALAGE

  • Published on
    17-Dec-2015

  • View
    216

  • Download
    3

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

  • Slide 1
  • THE WEST AND THE CHANGING WORLD BALANCE CHAPTER 15: THE END OF POST-CLASSICALAGE
  • Slide 2
  • END OF THE OLD ORDER Collapse of Post-Classical states Collapse of Post-Classical states ByzantinesByzantines Following 2 nd Crusade, slow decline Following 2 nd Crusade, slow decline Conquered 1453 by the Ottoman Turks Conquered 1453 by the Ottoman Turks Abbassid CaliphateAbbassid Caliphate Weakened by sectionalism Weakened by sectionalism Under control of Turkish clans Under control of Turkish clans Mongols and Timurlane Mongols and Timurlane Conquered all major Eurasian statesConquered all major Eurasian states Muslim cities destroyedMuslim cities destroyed New routes and cities arose due to MongolsNew routes and cities arose due to Mongols
  • Slide 3
  • SOUTH WEST ASIA Muslim religious leaders began to exert control Muslim religious leaders began to exert control Rationalism opposed by religious conservativesRationalism opposed by religious conservatives Mysticism, Islamic legalist traditions in favorMysticism, Islamic legalist traditions in favor Pursuit of science declinesPursuit of science declines Landlords exercised greater authority Landlords exercised greater authority Peasants reduced to borderline slavery, serfdomPeasants reduced to borderline slavery, serfdom Agricultural productivity declinedAgricultural productivity declined Tax revenueTax revenue Europeans challenged Arabs Europeans challenged Arabs Mediterranean, rise of Aragon, Castile, Venice, FranceMediterranean, rise of Aragon, Castile, Venice, France Merchants began to replace Muslim merchantsMerchants began to replace Muslim merchants No total collapse of Islamic civilization No total collapse of Islamic civilization Arabs lost power, old Abbassid realm fragmentsArabs lost power, old Abbassid realm fragments Ottoman Turks rapidly took over most of areaOttoman Turks rapidly took over most of area
  • Slide 4
  • INTERNATIONAL POWER VACUUM Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire Sultans did not restore Muslims to same levelSultans did not restore Muslims to same level Ottomans not center of international tradeOttomans not center of international trade Science and philosophy stagnated.Science and philosophy stagnated. Result was power vacuum in Islamic worldResult was power vacuum in Islamic world Rise of Rivals to Ottomans Rise of Rivals to Ottomans IndiaIndia PersiaPersia EgyptEgypt Mongols provided alternative framework Mongols provided alternative framework Redirected land trade away from MuslimsRedirected land trade away from Muslims Land routes turned attention to sea routes.Land routes turned attention to sea routes.
  • Slide 5
  • THE CHINESE Ming dynasty drove out the Mongols in 1368 Ming dynasty drove out the Mongols in 1368 China was best placed to control Eurasian tradeChina was best placed to control Eurasian trade Ming emperors sought expansionMing emperors sought expansion Extending the borders of the empire Extending the borders of the empire Reviving the tribute system Reviving the tribute system Initiating state-sponsored maritime expeditions. Initiating state-sponsored maritime expeditions. Voyages reached India, the Middle East, and AfricaVoyages reached India, the Middle East, and Africa Ming emperors ordered the voyages to cease in 1433.Ming emperors ordered the voyages to cease in 1433. Costs of voyages hurt infrastructureCosts of voyages hurt infrastructure Scholar-gentry opposed voyagesScholar-gentry opposed voyages China's decision reflected traditional Confucianism China's decision reflected traditional Confucianism Concentration on internal improvementsConcentration on internal improvements Cultural isolationCultural isolation Economic expansion did not depend on foreign tradeEconomic expansion did not depend on foreign trade China's withdrawal from world China's withdrawal from world Cleared the path for the emergence of EuropeansCleared the path for the emergence of Europeans China began long stagnationChina began long stagnation
  • Slide 6
  • HERE COME THE EUROPEANS By 15th century By 15th century West began to expand its world contactsWest began to expand its world contacts Important changes taking place in EuropeImportant changes taking place in Europe Church Under attack Church Under attack Great Schism saw up to three rival popesGreat Schism saw up to three rival popes Wealth led to reformers, who were condemnedWealth led to reformers, who were condemned Hus in Holy Roman Empire Hus in Holy Roman Empire Wycliffe in England Wycliffe in England Western philosophy and creativity stagnate Western philosophy and creativity stagnate Political organization of feudalism not effective Political organization of feudalism not effective Feudal monarchs acquire new powers, wealthFeudal monarchs acquire new powers, wealth Introduction of cannons, new weaponryIntroduction of cannons, new weaponry Death of nobles led to rise of citizen armies under kingsDeath of nobles led to rise of citizen armies under kings Impact of the Black Death, Impact of the Black Death, Carried off almost one-third of Europe's populationCarried off almost one-third of Europe's population Hit Italy and France worstHit Italy and France worst Hit merchants and urban elites including clergy heavilyHit merchants and urban elites including clergy heavily
  • Slide 7
  • LATE MEDIEVAL VITALITY New States Arose New States Arose More powerful and centralized nations aroseMore powerful and centralized nations arose Developed in aftermath of 100 Years' War.Developed in aftermath of 100 Years' War. France, England, Castile, Aragon, SwedenFrance, England, Castile, Aragon, Sweden New forms of military organizationNew forms of military organization Made greater centralization possible Made greater centralization possible Improvements in metallurgical technology Improvements in metallurgical technology Construction and use of guns and munitions. Construction and use of guns and munitions. Capitalism became more evident Capitalism became more evident Arose simultaneously in Netherlands, ItalyArose simultaneously in Netherlands, Italy Based on cities, non-nobles, banking, tradeBased on cities, non-nobles, banking, trade Increased urbanization Increased urbanization Especially true in Italy, NetherlandsEspecially true in Italy, Netherlands Often associated with tradeOften associated with trade
  • Slide 8
  • WESTERN EUROPE GROWS Overall trend between 1000/1700 Overall trend between 1000/1700 Rapid population expansionRapid population expansion Black Death only slowed trendBlack Death only slowed trend Europeans acquire Asian technology Europeans acquire Asian technology Western technology equal to EurasianWestern technology equal to Eurasian Europeans adapt, improve on ideasEuropeans adapt, improve on ideas Europeans invent new ideasEuropeans invent new ideas Europeans apply technology Europeans apply technology Adapted science to practicalAdapted science to practical Used technology in trade, navigation, warUsed technology in trade, navigation, war
  • Slide 9
  • RENAISSANCE & SECULARISM Began in Italy Began in Italy At the beginning of the 14th centuryAt the beginning of the 14th century Turned away from the medieval culturalTurned away from the medieval cultural More secular outlook in art and literatureMore secular outlook in art and literature Wealth of Italian cities patronized the artsWealth of Italian cities patronized the arts Typical political unit of Italian peninsula Typical political unit of Italian peninsula City-stateCity-state Florence, Milan, Venice, Rome and NaplesFlorence, Milan, Venice, Rome and Naples Cities competed for land, accomplishmentsCities competed for land, accomplishments Administrative, economic innovationsAdministrative, economic innovations
  • Slide 10
  • RENAISSANCE VALUES Age of cultural innovation and individualism. Age of cultural innovation and individualism. Artists abandoned medieval formalismArtists abandoned medieval formalism Concentration in arts, music, literature (humanities)Concentration in arts, music, literature (humanities) Embrace more realistic and secular styles Embrace more realistic and secular styles Classical architectural forms replaced Gothic Classical architectural forms replaced Gothic Tended to idealize Greece and Rome Tended to idealize Greece and Rome Initially Renaissance largely limited to Italy Initially Renaissance largely limited to Italy Even there its style was not accepted everywhereEven there its style was not accepted everywhere Spread to France, England, Netherlands, GermanySpread to France, England, Netherlands, Germany Called Northern Renaissance Called Northern Renaissance Bible, Hebrew more important as themes Bible, Hebrew more important as themes Science, math, theology of equal importance Science, math, theology of equal importance Italian commercial and shipping techniques Italian commercial and shipping techniques Laid the foundation for Western expansionLaid the foundation for Western expansion The "Renaissance spirit" The "Renaissance spirit" Encouraged a sense of innovation and discovery.Encouraged a sense of innovation and discovery.
  • Slide 11
  • IBERIA Castile, Aragon, Portugal are lead states Castile, Aragon, Portugal are lead states Christian Reconquista began 714Christian Reconquista began 714 Castile, Aragon united by marriage, 1469Castile, Aragon united by marriage, 1469 Drove Muslims out of Iberia by 1492Drove Muslims out of Iberia by 1492 The Church Militant The Church Militant Constant warfare = powerful, trained armiesConstant warfare = powerful, trained armies Defense, expansion of Christianity a dutyDefense, expansion of Christianity a duty Church worked closely with Iberian statesChurch worked closely with Iberian states Encouraged sense of religious missionEncouraged sense of religious mission Expansion abroad Expansion abroad Attack MuslimsAttack Muslims Conquer lands for ChristianityConquer lands for Christianity Break their trade monopoliesBreak their trade monopolies
  • Slide 12
  • EARLY EXPANSION Began in the 13th century Began in the 13th century Early discoveries = promise of colonialismEarly discoveries = promise of colonialism Early ExplorationsEarly Explorations Vivaldi brothers of Genoa explore Atlantic Vivaldi brothers of Genoa explore Atlantic In 14th century, Genoese discovered Canary Islands In 14th century, Genoese discovered Canary Islands Ships from Barcelona explore Atlantic African coast Ships from Barcelona explore Atlantic African coast Development of new technologyDevelopment of new technology More sea-worthy vessels More sea-worthy vessels Compass Compass Astrolabe Astrolabe European discoverers European discoverers Generally dominated by PortugalGenerally dominated by Portugal King supported a navy King supported a navy Built school under Prince Henry, sent out ships Built school under Prince Henry, sent out ships Penetrate even farther into the AtlanticPenetrate even farther into the Atlantic Along the African shoreAlong the African shore
  • Slide 13
  • COLONIAL PATTERNS Colonization followed exploration Colonization followed exploration Spanish and Portuguese Spanish and Portuguese Settlers established agricultural estatesSettlers established agricultural estates European diseases killed off natives European diseases killed off natives Europeans tried to enslave natives Europeans tried to enslave natives Europeans established feudal model for estates Europeans established feudal model for estates Designed to produce commercial cropsDesigned to produce commercial crops Sugar, cotton, and tobacco became popular crops Sugar, cotton, and tobacco became popular crops Iberian settlers imported African slaves Iberian settlers imported African slaves Commercial ventures were successfulCommercial ventures were successful Stimulate further colonizationStimulate further colonization Plantation model of exploitationPlantation model of exploitation
  • Slide 14
  • OUTSIDE THE NETWORK Areas not part of this global network Areas not part of this global network The AmericasThe Americas PolynesiaPolynesia Most of sub-Saharan AfricaMost of sub-Saharan Africa Remained unaffected by early expansion Remained unaffected by early expansion Eventually brought into European systemEventually brought into European system Some experienced difficultiesSome experienced difficulties Vulnerable to European expansionVulnerable to European expansion
  • Slide 15
  • POLITICAL AMERICAS Aztec/Inca empires of the Americas Aztec/Inca empires of the Americas In disarray prior to arrival of EuropeansIn disarray prior to arrival of Europeans Both had internal, external oppositionBoth had internal, external opposition Aztecs hatedAztecs hated Incas divided between family, clansIncas divided between family, clans If Americas had continued in isolation If Americas had continued in isolation Other cultures would have risenOther cultures would have risen Iroquois, Moundbuilders in USIroquois, Moundbuilders in US
  • Slide 16
  • Expansion, Migration, and Conquest in Polynesia Between 7 th and 15 th centuries Between 7 th and 15 th centuries MigrationsMigrations From Society Islands to Polynesia From Society Islands to Polynesia From Polynesia to Hawaii From Polynesia to Hawaii Settlement of Hawaii and New ZealandSettlement of Hawaii and New Zealand To Hawaiian islands To Hawaiian islands An agricultural society developedAn agricultural society developed Hawaii had regional kingdomsHawaii had regional kingdoms Stratified societies Stratified societies Dominated by priests and nobles Dominated by priests and nobles Hawaii lacked metallurgy, system of writing Hawaii lacked metallurgy, system of writing
  • Slide 17
  • NEW ZEALAND 2 ND migration to New Zealand 2 ND migration to New Zealand Maori culture of New Zealand Maori culture of New Zealand WarlikeWarlike Dominated by priests and noblesDominated by priests and nobles Lacked metallurgyLacked metallurgy Concentrated on use of indigenous speciesConcentrated on use of indigenous species All of these developments occurred in total isolation from other civilizations. All of these developments occurred in total isolation from other civilizations.
  • Slide 18
  • THE CHANGES The 15th century was an era of critical transitions involving world trade and the relative power of civilizations. The 15th century was an era of critical transitions involving world trade and the relative power of civilizations. As in the 20th century, newly dynamic civilizations challenged those that had previously dominated. Technology played a key role. As in the 20th century, newly dynamic civilizations challenged those that had previously dominated. Technology played a key role.
  • Slide 19
  • GLOBA...