Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

  • Published on
    24-Feb-2018

  • View
    219

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    1/41

    THINKING CRITICALLY

    WITH PSYCHOLOGYModule 1

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    2/41

    What is ScientifcPscholo!

    Pscholo! is the science o"#eha$io%& 'P%o"esso%(s )efnition*

    Pscholo!ists use the +ethods o"

    science to unco$e% la,s o" hu+an#eha$io%- .ust as othe% scientistunco$e% la,s o" natu%e&

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    3/41

    La,s and Rules o"/eha$io%

    So+e #eha$io% is uni$e%sal0 so+e #eha$io%con"o%+s to social %ules

    acial dis2la o" an!e% 3 uni$e%sal

    Acce2tance o" teena!e %o+antic %elationshi2s 3%ule con"o%+in!

    A+e%ica 3 OK

    China 3 Inte%"e%es ,ith acade+ics andina22%o2%iate

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    4/41

    A%e all 2eo2le2scholo!ists4

    5ean Pia!et 3 6oolo!ist and 2scholo!istsu!!ested that the hu+an de$elo2s "%o+ ani%%ational #ein! to a %ational0 lo!ical #ein!&

    All a%e i+2elled to add%ess the WHY7uestions&

    Wh did this ha22en4Wh did the 2e%son t%eat +e this ,a4

    Wh does thunde% "ollo, li!htnin!4

    Wh did the chic8en c%oss the %oad4

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    5/41

    Ancient and Old Ideas inPscholo!

    9:; /C Plato a%!ued that the

    #%ain is sou%ce o" +ental2%ocesses&

    9

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    6/41

    A=ect > Co!nition )e#ate

    )o 2eo2le thin8 f%st and then"eel e+otion4

    o%

    )o 2eo2le "eel e+otion f%st andthen thin8 a#out it4

    /oth 2%ocesses occu%

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    7/41

    )esca%tes 1?9;

    )esca%tes 2%o2osed the idea o"+ind>#od inte%action& Conce2to" innate ideas 3 at #i%th 2eo2lea%e #o%n ,ith an in#o%ntendenc to thin8 a#out onesel"and one(s e@istence&

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    8/41

    Loc8e 1?B

    Loc8e %e.ected the idea o" an in#o%n

    tendenc to thin8 o" sel" and a%!ued that

    at #i%th the +ind is a ta#ula %asa o% a

    #lan8 slateD u2on ,hich e@2e%ience,%ites&

    A%!ued "o% e+2i%icis+ 3 ,hat ,e 8no,

    a#out the ,o%ld co+es th%ou!h e@2e%ienceand o#se%$ation0 not th%ou!h intuition&E+2i%icis+ is at the 2hiloso2hical #ase o"+ode%n science&

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    9/41

    Mes+e% 1;;F

    Mes+e% 2e%"o%+s e@2e%i+ents on

    ani+al +a!netis+D to cu%e+ental illness& This ,as theea%liest ,o%8 on h2nosis&

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    10/41

    )a%,inian Theo% o" Natu%alSelection

    1:

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    11/41

    Wilhel+ Wundt

    1:; Wilhel+ Wundt esta#lishes thef%st e@2e%i+ental 2scholo!la#o%ato% at the ni$e%sit o"

    Lei26i! to stud 2scho2hsics&

    Wundt(s e+2hasis ,as onconsciousness 'a,a%eness o" ane@te%nal sti+ulus and +ental2%ocesses*

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    12/41

    Wundt(s Method

    sed a +ethod calledInt%os2ectionis+ 3 su#.ectsdesc%i#ed thei% sensations o%

    "eelin!s a"te% #ein! e@2osed to asti+ulus

    Wundt is conside%ed the "ounde%o" e@2e%i+ental 2scholo!& All

    Ph&)& 2scholo!ists can t%ace

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    13/41

    All Pscholo!ist can T%ace thei%Linea!e

    http://simonton.faculty.ucdavis.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/243/2015/08/PhDlineae.

    pdf

    M +a.o% ad$iso% at Conn ')a$id

    A& Kenn* a22ea%s nea% the end o"the list

    http://simonton.faculty.ucdavis.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/243/2015/08/PhDlineage.pdfhttp://simonton.faculty.ucdavis.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/243/2015/08/PhDlineage.pdfhttp://simonton.faculty.ucdavis.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/243/2015/08/PhDlineage.pdfhttp://simonton.faculty.ucdavis.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/243/2015/08/PhDlineage.pdfhttp://simonton.faculty.ucdavis.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/243/2015/08/PhDlineage.pdfhttp://simonton.faculty.ucdavis.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/243/2015/08/PhDlineage.pdf
  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    14/41

    So+e Nota#le A+e%icanPscholo!ists

    1: G& Stanle Hall #eco+es thef%st 2%esident o" the A+e%icanPscholo!ical Association&

    1:F Ma% Wash#u%n is the f%st,o+an to %ecei$e the Ph&)& in2scholo! 'Co%nell*&

    1:F Ma% Whiton Cal8ins is %e"usedad+ission to docto%al candidac at

    Ha%$a%d #ecause she ,as a ,o+an&

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    15/41

    /%oad A22%oaches inPscholo!

    Int%os2ectionis+

    Gestalt Pscholo!St%uctu%alis+

    unctionalis+

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    16/41

    Int%ose2ctionis+

    Su#.ect %e2o%ts consciouse@2e%ience o" e$ents o% sti+uli

    Method de$elo2ed # Wundt

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    17/41

    St%uctu%alis+

    Wundt(s student Ed,a%d Titchne%sta%ted an a22%oach at Co%nell calledSt%uctu%alis+&

    As che+ists and 2hsicists stud thest%uctu%e o" +atte%0 these2scholo!ists atte+2ted to stud thest%uctu%e o" the +ind&

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    18/41

    Gestalt Pscholo!

    Conscious e@2e%ience is +o%e than thesu+ o" its 2a%ts&

    o% e@a+2le 3 a neon si!n o% the 2hi2heno+enon > ,e 2e%cei$e +o$e+ento" li!ht ,hen it is onl li!hts !oin! onand o=

    http://imaes-mediawi"i-sites.thefullwi"i.o

    #/02/3/4/4/811$3$25310%0483.if

    http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/02/3/4/4/8116362531090483.gifhttp://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/02/3/4/4/8116362531090483.gifhttp://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/02/3/4/4/8116362531090483.gifhttp://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/02/3/4/4/8116362531090483.gif
  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    19/41

    unctionalis+

    Willia+ 5a+es 2%o2osed the

    unctionalist a22%oach&

    A=ected # the e$olutiona% theo% o"Cha%les )a%,in0 5a+es ,as conce%ned,ith the "unction o" #eha$io% 'e&!&

    s+ell0 thin8in!0 e+otion and $ision&*

    In essence0 thei% "unction is to ada2t to

    the en$i%on+ent&

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    20/41

    Conte+2o%a% Pscholo!

    An inte%national scientifc ente%2%ise ,ith

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    21/41

    A22%oaches in Mode%n Pscholo!

    Neu%oscience >> ho, the #%ain andothe% #iolo!ical sste+s a=ect#eha$io%

    E$olutiona% >>> Ho, hu+an #eha$io%has e$ol$ed in o%de% to 2%o+oteada2tation and %e2%oduction&

    /eha$io% Genetics >> )ete%+ines the%elati$e e=ects o" !enes and the

    en$i%on+ent in the dete%+ination o"

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    22/41

    A22%oaches in Mode%nPscholo!

    Pschodna+ic >> Ho, #eha$io% isdete%+ined # ea%l childhood e@2e%iences&

    /eha$io%al >> Ho, #eha$io% is lea%ned

    Co!niti$e >> Ho, in"o%+ation is ta8en in0o%!ani6ed0 and %et%ie$ed "%o+ the #%ain&

    Social>Cultu%al 3 Ho, 2eo2le a=ect the#eha$io% o" othe% 2eo2le and ho, cultu%esha2es the #eha$io% o" 2eo2le&

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    23/41

    A22%oaches in Mode%nPscholo!

    Hu+anistic A22%oach 3 /eha$io% is dueto the choices that 2eo2le +a8e inthei% li$es #ased on ho, the ,o%ld is

    2e%cei$ed&

    Each 2e%son has a uni7ue 2e%ce2tiono" the ,o%ld #ased on thei% uni7ue seto" e@2e%iences&

    I" 2eo2le a%e t%eated ,ith

    unconditional 2ositi$e %e!a%d0 the ,ill

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    24/41

    S2ecialties in Pscholo!

    A student t2icall s2eciali6es in ana%ea ,hile a !%aduate student anddoes the Ph&)& thesis in that a%ea&

    The%e a%e t,o !ene%al cate!o%ies#asic %esea%ch and a22lied 2scholo!&

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    25/41

    /asic Resea%ch E@a+2les

    > E@2e%i+ental Pscholo!

    > )e$elo2+ental Pscholo!

    > Social Pscholo!> Pe%sonalit Pscholo!

    > Co!niti$e Pscholo!

    > /iolo!icalPscholo!JNeu%oscience

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    26/41

    A22lied Resea%chE@a+2les

    > Clinical Pscholo!

    > Health Pscholo!

    > Indust%ialJO%!ani6ationalPscholo!

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    27/41

    Is 2scholo! nothin! +o%e thanco++on sense4

    Wh is a scientifc a22%oach tounde%standin! #eha$io% necessa%4

    Is co++on sense enou!h4

    Is intuition ade7uate4

    )o ,e need all these theo%ies and studies4

    Resea%ch sho,s that hu+an thin8in! can #e$e% #iased and flled ,ith e%%o%&

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    28/41

    Co!niti$e /ias

    > illuso% co%%elation %a%e0i+2%o#a#le e$ents a%e 2e%cei$ed# 2eo2le as #ein! +o%e co++on

    than the a%e&

    > a case o" #u#onic 2la!ue in

    A+e%ica

    >te%%o%ist attac8 # %adical

    5ihadists

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    29/41

    Co!niti$e E@2ectations

    I" ou o%de% fsh in a%estau%ant ,ho do ou

    e@2ect to !et4

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    30/41

    )oes this i+a!e +atch oue@2ectation4

    T2ical fsh inS2ain

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    31/41

    What is t2ical #%ea8"ast "ood4

    T2ical /%ea8"astIn Mo%occo

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    32/41

    E@2ectanc iolation

    We tend to %eact ne!ati$el,hen e@2ectations a%e

    $iolated > ,e conside% thin!s,ei%d o% !%oss

    Othe% 2eo2le ,ould "eel thee@act o22osite a#out thesa+e sti+ulus o% e$ent

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    33/41

    Scientifc Attitude 3 Ho, does ascientist thin84

    1& Cu%iosit

    & S8e2ticis+

    9& C%itical Thin8in!

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    34/41

    Thin8 Li8e a Scientist

    > conside% assu+2tions that +ost acce2t ast%ue 'e&!&0 the e%%oneous #elie" that the ea%this at the cente% o" the sola% sste+*

    > thin8 a#out the $alue i+2lications o"assu+2tions ',o+en ,ill #e una#le to ,o%8e=ecti$el a "e, das a +onth*

    > e$aluate the e$idence 'data* and #e !uided# it

    > c%iticall e$aluate ones conclusions

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    35/41

    Scientifc Method)educti$e Science

    > Theo% an o%!ani6ed set o" ideas thate@2lain a 2heno+enon

    > H2othesis a testa#le 2%ediction de%i$ed"%o+ a theo%

    > O2e%ational )efnition an e@2licitstate+ent o" the e@act o2e%ations to #e usedto +easu%e $a%ia#les

    > Re2lication de+onst%ation that an

    e@2e%i+ental %esult ,ill occu% %e2eatedl indi=e%ent la#s0 in di=e%ent 2laces0 ,ithdi=e%ent scientists0 at di=e%ent 2oints inti+e&

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    36/41

    Scientifc Method > Inducti$eScience

    Collectin! a la%!e #od o" dataand then de$elo2in! theo%ies toe@2lain the o#se%$ations

    htt2JJ,,,&int%o2sch&co+JchB:

    ani+alsJ2hlo!eneticscale&ht+lo% e@a+2le > #iolo!istsdisco$e% ani+als and cate!o%i6ethe+ on the h lo enetic scale

    http://www.intropsych.com/ch08_animals/phylogenetic_scale.htmlhttp://www.intropsych.com/ch08_animals/phylogenetic_scale.htmlhttp://www.intropsych.com/ch08_animals/phylogenetic_scale.htmlhttp://www.intropsych.com/ch08_animals/phylogenetic_scale.htmlhttp://www.intropsych.com/ch08_animals/phylogenetic_scale.htmlhttp://www.intropsych.com/ch08_animals/phylogenetic_scale.html
  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    37/41

    T2es o" Resea%ch StudiesConducted # Pscholo!ists

    1& Case Stud

    & Su%$e

    9& Natu%alistic O#se%$ation

    F& Co%%elational Stud

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    38/41

    /asic Ideas in Pscholo!icalResea%ch Methods

    E@2e%i+ent 3 +ani2ulate causal $a%ia#les'inde2endent $a%ia#les* to assess the i+2act on thede2endent $a%ia#le '#eha$io% o" inte%est*&

    Place#o 3 an ine%t su#stance that is used to cont%ol "o%e@2ectanc e=ects ,hen an acti$e a!ent is used in ane@2e%i+ent&

    )ou#le /lind P%ocedu%e > Neithe% the e@2e%i+ente% o%

    the su#.ect 8no, i" a 2lace#o o% an acti$e a!ent is#ein! ad+iniste%ed&

    Place#o e=ect 3 the e=ect o" a 2lace#o on #eha$io% o%health 'a "ai%l 2o,e%"ul e=ect*&

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    39/41

    Inde2endent and )e2endenta%ia#les

    Inde2endent a%ia#le 3 the$a%ia#le the e@2e%i+ente%+ani2ulates 'e&!& !ettin! an

    e@2e%i+ental d%u! o% a 2lace#o*

    )e2endent a%ia#le 3 the $a%ia#le

    that is a=ected # the+ani2ulation o" the inde2endent$a%ia#le

    'e&!& a health outco+e such as

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    40/41

    Ke eatu%es o" an E@2e%i+ent

    E@2e%i+ental Condition 3 in an e@2e%i+ent this isthe condition that e@2oses the su#.ect to as2ecifc le$el o" the I 'e&!& ,ood sho2 accident*

    Cont%ol Condition 3 in an e@2e%i+ent this is thecondition that se%$es as a #aseline "o% co+2a%ison"o% the e@2e%i+ental condition 'e&!&0 the +ountainscene*&

    Rando+ Assi!n+ent 3 each su#.ect +ust ha$e ane7ual 2%o#a#ilit o" #ein! in eithe% thee@2e%i+ental o% cont%ol condition o" thee@2e%i+ent&

  • 7/24/2019 Thinking Critically With PsychologyM1(1)

    41/41

    Stud Ti2s 3 Guide to Success inthis Cou%se

    1& Kee2 u2 ,ith ,ee8l assi!n+ents 'don(t 2ut the+ o=*

    & %ead the +ate%ial in the #oo8

    9& Stud the 2o,e%>2oint slides

    F& Ca%e"ull listen to and ta8e notes on online lectu%es

    it ,ill hel2 ou%e+e+#e% the +ate%ial

    ?& TAKE RESPONSI/ILITY OR YOR LEARNING

    ;& IT IS COOL TO /E A SERIOS ST)ENT

    :& THIS IS YOR 5O/ 3 WORK HAR) AT YOR 5O/ AS AST)ENT

Recommended

View more >