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The following videotape program is available from Glencoe as a supplement to Chapter 10:
Scourge of the Black Death(ISBN 0767005341)
To order, call Glencoe at 18003347344. To findclassroom resources to accompany this video,check the following home pages:A&E Television: www.aande.comThe History Channel: www.historychannel.com
TEACHING TRANSPARENCIESTEACHING TRANSPARENCIESChapter Transparency 10 L2
Graphic Organizer StudentActivity 10 Transparency L2
CHAPTER TRANSPARENCY 10
Europe in the Middle Ages (10001500)
Map OverlayTransparency 10 L2
Spread of the Black Death
Avignon Genoa Florence
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Map Overlay Transparency 10
Enrichment Activity 10 L3
by The M
Name Date Class
Section 1 describes the lives of the feudallords and vassals and the living and work-ing conditions of the peasants. One of theimportant roles at this time was the man-
Enrichment Activity 10
agement of the household, a task often per-formed by a noblewoman. The descriptionbelow gives an account of what that taskcould involve.
The Noble Household
DIRECTIONS: Complete the activities below.
1. Imagine that you are the noblewoman of a castle with a household of 50 people. Use theinformation above and from the textbook to imagine the tasks you have to complete inone day. Fill in the tasks on the following roster.
4:30 A.M. Daybreak and church5:00 A.M. _______________________________________________________________________7:00 A.M. _______________________________________________________________________9:00 A.M. _______________________________________________________________________11:00 A.M. ______________________________________________________________________1:00 P.M. ________________________________________________________________________3:00 P.M. ________________________________________________________________________4:30 P.M. Sundown and church5:00 P.M. ________________________________________________________________________7:00 P.M. Bed
2. Imagine that you must provide dinner for your guests and your immediate householdabout 15 people. Make a list of items you may need to collect. Think of all the places youmay need to travel on your own estate and elsewhere to acquire these things. Make anote about where to get each item. The list is begun for you. Use an extra sheet of paperto continue your list.
Items for DinnerItem Location
4 loaves of bread mill
small jug of cooking oil market in town
A feudal household could be quite large. Important nobles could have a household of as many as200 people. This meant a lot of management. Some of the work had to be delegated to variouspeople, such as those in charge of the preparation and serving of food and wine or the manufactureand maintenance of clothing and linens. These people, in turn, made sure that the work was done. Inaddition, enormous quantities of food had to be gathered and purchased. Guests had to be enter-tained by musicians and performers. Horses and livestock had to be overseen, and farm work carriedout and supervised. Children needed to be cared for and educated. Rooms had to be cleaned andwarmed. Often, a chapel operated as a church and was attended at least once a day. Letters to lordsand vassals had to be written. Rents had to be collected.
Primary Source Reading 10 L2
Name Date Class
An Italian Writer Describes the Black Death
Giovanni Boccaccio was a thirteenth century Italian writer who wroteDecameron, the story of a group of men and women who survive theBlack Death by fleeing their city. Read this excerpt from the introduc-tion of his book to learn more about what it was like during the time of thisterrible epidemic.
Guided Reading In this selection, read to understand some of the effects of an epidemic plague on people in theMiddle Ages.
The symptoms were not the same as in theEast, where a gush of blood from the nose wasthe plain sign of inevitable death; but it beganboth in men and women with certain swellingsin the groin or under the armpit. They grew tothe size of a small apple or an egg, more or less,and were vulgarly called tumours. In a shortspace of time these tumours spread from the twoparts named all over the body. Soon after thisthe symptoms changed and black or purplespots appeared on the arms or thighs or anyother part of the body, sometimes a few largeones, sometimes many little ones. These spotswere a certain sign of death, just as the originaltumour had been and still remained.
No doctors advice, no medicine could over-come or alleviate this disease, An enormousnumber of ignorant men and women set up asdoctors in addition to those who were trained.Either the disease was such that no treatmentwas possible or the doctors were so ignorant thatthey did not know what caused it, and conse-quently could not administer the proper remedy.In any case very few recovered; most peopledied within about three days of the appearanceof the tumours described above, most of themwithout any fever or other symptoms.
The violence of this disease was such thatthe sick communicated it to the healthy whocame near them, just as a fire catches anythingdry or oily near it. And it even went further. Tospeak to or go near the sick brought infectionand a common death to the living; and to touchthe clothes or anything else the sick had touchedor worn gave the disease to the person touching.
...Such fear and fanciful notions took posses-sion of the living that almost all of them adoptedthe same cruel policy, which was entirely to
avoid the sick and everything belonging tothem. By so doing, each one thought he wouldsecure his own safety.
Some thought that moderate living and theavoidance of all superfluity [non-essentials]would preserve them from the epidemic. Theyformed small communities, living entirely sepa-rate from everybody else. They shut themselvesup in houses where there were no sick, eatingthe finest food and drinking the best wine verytemperately, avoiding all excess, allowing nonews or discussion of death and sickness, andpassing the time in music and suchlike plea-sures. Others thought just the opposite. Theythought the sure cure for the plague was todrink and be merry, to go about singing andamusing themselves, satisfying every appetitethey could, laughing and jesting at what hap-pened. They put their words into practice, spentday and night going from tavern to tavern,drinking immoderately, or went into other peo-ples houses, doing only those things whichpleased them. This they could easily do becauseeveryone felt doomed and had abandoned hisproperty, so that most houses became commonproperty and any stranger who went in madeuse of them as if he had owned them. And withall this bestial [animal] behaviour, they avoidedthe sick as much as possible.
In this suffering and misery of our city, theauthority of human and divine laws almost dis-appeared, for, like other men, the ministers andthe executors of the laws were all dead or sick orshut up with their families, so that no dutieswere carried out. Every man was therefore ableto do as he pleased.
Many others adopted a course of life mid-way between the two just described. They did
P R I M A R Y S O U R C E R E A D I N G 10
APPLICATION AND ENRICHMENTAPPLICATION AND ENRICHMENTHistory SimulationActivity 10 L1
Name Date Class
by The M
Meet the MedievalsWorksheet
1. Which people seem to have the most power?
Which seem to have the least power?
2. Assumptions we can make about the quality of these peoples lives:
3. The political situation here is subject to change. How is this related to the interdependency of vari-ous groups of people?
4. At this point, the character we would like to be is because .
Lord Godwin of AmsburyI am Lord Godwin, in the service of King Jeffrey,now the ruler of this region of England. I am theowner of a large estate, granted me by the king inturn for my loyalty and my legions of knights. I amsworn to protect my kinga duty I hold as dear asmy own life. But I am ambitious and have sent myknights to battle John of Lamprey, lord to KingRichard, a possible usurper of the Crown.
Lady ElizabethI am wife to Lord Godwin and the mother of hisseven children (two of which have died of theplague). I am mistress of the estate, which is nosmall task, for there are 100 servants, cooks, arti-sans, and peasants who need my attention. I alsokeep an herb garden for the medicines my house-hold might need.
Sir StephenI am the son of Lord Godwin and will soonbecome a knight. I have spent several years as apage and squire to a neighboring lord, whommy father trusts. If I can prove myself at tour-ney, I will earn the right to bear arms for KingJeffrey. Someday he may grant me a fief for mybravery.
Mary, prioress of Saint AgathaI am the daughter of Lord and Lady Godwin. Iwould not marry the man my father ordered me tomarry, so I have taken refuge in the Convent ofSaint Agatha. I will serve God and the good peas-ants of the nearby village with my skills in medicinethat I learned from my mother.
Jack BuilderI am called Jack Builder because I am a mason, askilled artisan. I have served many an importantlord and clergyman. I was an apprentice to themaster builder of King Jeffreys castle, and I wasmaster builder of the cathedral that serves HolyCross in the Woods. The cathedral is the mostimportant building in town.
AgnesI am a serf who lives on the estate of Lord Godwin.I work on the estate with my husband and ourthree children. I pull a plow and sow seeds. In deepwinter, I am invited to the great house to help withthe needlework and mending. Godwin will alwaysbe my lord, unless Richard seizes the throne fromKing Jeffrey. Then this estate will be granted toJohn of Lamprey, and he will be our new lord.
10H I S T O R YS I M U L A T I O NAC T I V I T Y
Historical SignificanceActivity 10 L2
Name Date Class
In the twelfth to fourteenth centuries,towns began to expand and so did the middle class. The middle class gained itsincome from buying and selling goods.
Today, in many countries the middle classmakes up most of the population. Read thistwelfth-century description of medievalLondoners and an early take-out restaurant.
Historical Significance Activity 10
The Beginnings of the Middle Class
DIRECTIONS: Fill in the chart to compare and contrast the description of medieval take-outto take-out today.
Restaurant Take-out: Then and NowMiddle Ages Today
Those engaged in the several kinds of business, sellers of several things, contrac-tors for several kinds of work, are distributed every morning into their severallocalities and shops. Besides, there is in London on the river bank, among the winesin ships and cellars sold by the vintners, a public cook shop; there eatables are to befound every day, according to the season, dishes of meat, roast, fried and boiled,great and small fish, coarser meats for the poor, more delicate for the rich, of game,fowls, and small birds. If there should come suddenly to any of the citizens friends,weary from a journey and too hungry to like waiting till fresh food is bought andcooked . . . there is all that can be wanted. However great the multitude of soldiersor travellers entering the city, or preparing to go out of it, at any hour of the day ornight,that these may not fast too long and those may not go supperless,they turnhither, if they please, where every man can refresh himself in his own way. . . .
From The Medieval Reader edited by Norman F. Cantor
Cooperative LearningActivity 10 L1/ELL
Name Date Class
A Day in the Life: Europe in the Middle Ages
Cooperative Learning Activity 10
BACKGROUNDEuropean society during the medieval period was characterized by rigidly stratifiedclasses. The class divisions were derived from the feudal system and were com-prised of king and queen, clergy, noble lords and ladies, rural peasants or serfs, andthe few merchant or craftsman freemen and their families. By working as a groupto create a five-minute play that illustrates life in the Middle Ages, you will learnmore about medieval life and society.
GROUP DIRECTIONS1. As a group, review the roles and classes that made up medieval society in the
High Middle Ages from about A.D. 1000 and 1300. Use your textbook chapters 9and 10 as a quick reference.
2. Brainstorm ideas for a short dramatic presentation that would illustrate rolesand interactions among classes. Be specific about scene, plot, and characters.Describe how the characters would interact and what they would say.
3. Create a script and assign all group members roles in the play. You might wantto assign a group leader role to one member to act as director and to another asscript or dialogue coach to help individual actors write and deliver their linesand rehearse their roles. Possible roles include the following.rural peasant priestmerchant or craftsman monklord/noble lady/nobleknight king or queenbishop nun
Your plot and dialog should showcase the different, yet interdependent classesthat existed in medieval society. The more interaction among the characters and classes that you can build into your drama or comedy, the better your playwill be.
4. Present your play to the class. Use props or costume enhancements where possible.
ORGANIZING THE GROUP1. Group Work/Decision Making As a group, appoint a director to oversee the
development of the script and the details of the short play. Brainstorm possiblescenarios in which medieval roles and characters might interact. Decide on abasic setting and plot for the play. Create a list of characters, with names, to fitinto your scene and setting. Assign roles to individuals and let...