MSc Tunnelling & Underground SpaceSustainability in tunnellingtunnelling underground spacetunnelling underground space1ContentsSustainability what do we mean?Sustainability cultureClimate change and carbon accountingCost benefit analysisWhat the future holds reasons to be cheerful
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www.xkcd.comtunnelling underground spacetunnelling underground space3Sustainability what do we mean?Brundtland Commission, UN, 1987: sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainability is good engineering (Jones, 2011)tunnelling underground spacetunnelling underground space4
Sustainability what do we mean? Business perspective:There is no business to be done on a dead planet.- Yvon Chouinard, Founder, Patagonia
tunnelling underground spacetunnelling underground spaceBut this requires a very long-term business plan, say 50-100 years. Is business set up to think this way?Later on well look at the business case.
5The Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE) believes that civil engineers are "at the heart of society, delivering sustainable development through knowledge, skills and professional expertise." Sustainability what do we mean? Sustainability for civil engineers Sustainability is just good engineering, applying an ethical, long-term, systems-based approach to the planet.tunnelling underground space6The Society maintains a leading role in the development of the tunnelling industry both regionally and internationally to promote the safe, efficient, sustainable, and technically advanced design, construction and use of underground space.
Sustainability what do we mean?tunnelling underground spacetunnelling underground spaceThe role of the BTS.7Sustainabilityat the core of every engineering decisionsustainability is not just about CO2
peopleprofitplanetsocialeconomicenvironmentaltunnelling underground spacetunnelling underground spaceGet students to think of factors in engineering decisions, then classify them as people, profit or planetChoice of soil conditioningLocation of shaft site8Sustainability CultureSustainability is a cultural shiftThe way we do things round here needs to change
How have cultural shifts been introduced in the past?
CBI (1990) Developing a safety culturetunnelling underground space9Sustainability culturecrucial importance of the leadership and commitment of the Chief Executivedepends on the role of line management, the involvement of all employees and on openness of communicationthe importance of demonstrating care and concern for all those affected by the business
Source: CBI (1990)tunnelling underground spacetunnelling underground space10Sustainability culture is:the ideas and beliefs that all members of the organisation share about sustainabilitya long-term strategy that has to be continually reinforcedIt must counter the belief that sustainability is an add-on, optional extra, or a fad. It should be in our minds when we make any decision, in the same way that safety is.
tunnelling underground spacetunnelling underground space11CO2
www.sccs.org.uk/capturetunnelling underground spacetunnelling underground space12
Dramatic increase in emissions in the last centurysource: King, 2012tunnelling underground spacetunnelling underground space13and the earth is warming in response
http://richannel.org/co2-and-the-other-carbon-problem tunnelling underground spacetunnelling underground space142050 target reduce CO2 by 80%
tunnelling underground spacetunnelling underground space15Embodied and operational carbonembodied or capital carbon is all the CO2 used to build the structureextraction of raw materials, refining, processing, manufacturing, transportationinstallation of elements to create structuremining, extraction, treatment and transportation of spoilmaintenance, refurbishment, demolition
tunnelling underground spacetunnelling underground space16Embodied and operational carbonoperational carbon is all the CO2 used during the service life of the structureheating/coolingventilationpumping out waterlighting, cameras, comms, signallingcleaningchanges to transport infrastructureusually there is trade-off between embodied and operational carbontunnelling underground spacetunnelling underground spacechanges to transport infrastructurecan mean modal changes, e.g. construction of a new train tunnel may reduce road traffic look at reduction in CO2 from cars but increase due to traction power of trainsalignment changes, e.g. less up and down can reduce freight emissions (doesnt much affect cars)17Examplescable tunnelroad tunnel bypass to relieve congestion at a bottleneck through a townrail/metro tunnelpotable water supply tunnelsewerage tunnelhydropower tunnel
tunnelling underground spacetunnelling underground space18How do you actually calculate CO2?complicated! economic cost is much simpler! consider cementsome companies have their own custom programs, e.g. CapIT, CO2STICE CESMM3 Carbon & Price Book and UK Building Blackbook
tunnelling underground spacetunnelling underground space19Cost-benefit analysisconstruction is not part of the EU carbon emissions trading scheme, so there is no price on carbonso will cost always win?many clients are committed to reducing CO2, e.g. TfL has committed to helping the Mayor of London achieve 60% CO2 reduction by 2025environmental performance is becoming a standard part of tender evaluationsclauses based on energy performance and CEEQual are finding their way into contractstunnelling underground spacetunnelling underground spacePoint is that even though it is difficult to quantify social and environmental costs and benefits, in trying to do so we understand the compromises we are making better.Not always a trade-off often by thinking sustainably we find win-win-win situations20Business case for sustainabilitycompetitiveness in non-price factors can give a distinct and sustainable competitive edge high ethical standards means the company is regarded as a respected corporate citizen reputation as a good employerone aspect of a culture of excellencealignment of corporate objectives and employees personal objectives?attention to detail of working practicesreputation as a forward-thinking businesstunnelling underground spacetunnelling underground spacewin-win-win
Pt.2: companies want to work with other companies with similar commitmentsIan Renhard, Head of UK Construction at Interserve21Ian Renhard, Head of UK Construction, Interserve, speaking at BASE Birmingham:even in a recession, having a strong sustainability strategy makes the company more resilientcompanies want to work with other companies with similar commitmentscommitment to the local community and to training has strengthened the supply chain and improved planning for future skillsmore attractive employerimproved corporate reputationtunnelling underground spacetunnelling underground spaceStern ReviewStern (2006) demonstrated that almost all of climate change carbon reduction is wealth-generating and improves the quality of peoples lives
e.g. an investment of 3.6bn in reducing Birminghams carbon footprint would (Gouldson et al., 2013):pay for itself in 3.8 years and create 1,650 jobsreduce vulnerability to energy price risesprotect competitivenessimprove public healthslash the carbon footprint by 53% by 2027
tunnelling underground spacetunnelling underground spaceStern Reviewclimate change is the greatest and widest-ranging market failure ever seenthis is because government decisions are often based on cost-benefit analysis, i.e. impact on GDPthis framework ignores externalities such as social and environmental impacts/benefits
perhaps we need to measure wellbeing insteadtunnelling underground spacetunnelling underground spaceDoes GDP growth = better standard of living? Not for last 3 decades at least.In the last 50 years average incomes have more than doubled, but in Japan, the US and the UK we havent become happier (Layard, 2005), and arguably the pursuit of GDP growth has led to unsustainable exploitation of resources.
The Kingdom of Bhutan was formed in 1729 and in its first legal code, the purpose of government was to create happiness for its people. Gross National Happiness (GNH) was first put forward as an alternative to GDP by the 4th King in 1972. GNH has been regularly measured since 2006 with the aim that government policies are targeted at sectors of the population who are not yet happy. GNH is multidimensional and measured across 9 domains, so isnt restricted to subjective wellbeing. These domains are psychological wellbeing, time use, community vitality, cultural diversity, ecological resilience, living standard, health, education and good governance. Individuals need to score well in the majority of domains in order to be considered robustly happy (Ura et al., 2012). Inspired by the Enlightenment ideals of Jeremy Bentham, Richard Layard proposed a move away from targets based on growth in GDP to assessing the merits of government policy interventions by trying to measure happiness (Layard, 2005). Happiness is egalitarian, in that the happiness of all people is valued equally, and is good for society as we focus on the common good rather than on self-realisation. More recently, the trend is to refer to wellbeing, rather than happiness.
24Five capitals modelrelies on the concept of wealth creation or capital growth, but defines 5 types of capital:Natural Capital the natural resources and processes needed to produce products and