statesman orator historian writer artist the only British prime minister to have received the Nobel Prize in Literature the first person to have been recognized as an honorary citizen of the United States
Unit One Text I Never Give in. Never, Never, Never Winston Churchill ( ) was a British Conservative politician and statesman known for his leadership of the United Kingdom during World War II. Widely regarded as one of the greatest wartime leaders of the century, he served as Prime Minister twice (1940 and 1951).ConservativestatesmanPrime Minister statesman orator historian writer artist the only British prime minister to have received the Nobel Prize in Literature the first person to have been recognized as an honorary citizen of the United States Harrow School ( ) an English independent school for boys situated in the town of Harrow, in north-west London. It is widely considered one of the best secondary schools in the world along with its famous rival Eton. Churchill is one of the famous alumni.independent schoolHarrowEton World War II World War II was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the worlds nations including all of the great powers eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis.most of the worlds nationsgreat powersAlliesAxis Britain played a very important role in WW II. The Battle of Britain Germany advances through Europe September May 1940 Churchill becomes Prime Minister 10 May 1940 Britain retreats from France 26 May - 4 June 1940 Churchill decides to fight on May 1940 Hitler plans the invasion of Britain July 1940 Germany bombs British towns and cities July - August 1940 Germany bombs British coastal airfields 11 July -18 August 1940 Germany attacks RAF Fighter Command 24 August - 4 September 1940 Germany bombs London 7-15 September 1940 Hitler postpones the invasion of Britain 21 October 1940 Battle of Britain came to an end and Germany began an invasion of the Soviet Union. 6 May 1941 This text is an inspiring speech made by Winston Churchill, Great Britains then Prime Minister, when he visited Harrow School on 29 October, The whole speech can be divided into three parts. Part I: (Paragraph 1): Some opening remarks, in which Churchill summarized the events that had happened since his last visit to Harrow. Part II: (Paragraphs 2 5): The body of the speech, in which Churchill drew the lessons to be learned from the past year. Part III: (Paragraphs 6 8): The concluding part, in which, by changing a word in the additional verse of the school song, Churchill expressed his conviction that the entire nation was blessed with the chance to display its courage to the full in what was, as he elsewhere put it, its finest hour. Part I (Paragraph 1): Some opening remarks, in which Churchill summarized the events that had happened since his last visit to Harrow. Language Points: 1. catastrophic a. of, relating to, or involving a catastrophe a catastrophic illness > catastrophe n. Syn. accident, calamity, disaster, misfortune, tragedy, cataclysm. 2. misfortune n. 1) [U] bad luck ; : e.g. suffer great misfortune 2) [C] unfortunate condition, accident or event ; ; : e.g. She bore her misfortunes bravely. > syn.: adversity, mishap, mischance 3. desperately adv. , , 1) in a desperate way e.g. The doctors tried desperately to save her life. 2) very or very much e.g. The crops desperately need rain. > desperation n. 4. menace n. 1). [U] threatening quality, tone, feeling, etc ; : e.g. a film that creates an atmosphere of menace 2) [sing] ~ (to sb/sth) person or thing that threatens e.g. These weapons are a menace (to world peace). 5. lull n. & v. 1) n (usu sing) interval of quiet or inactivity ; ; e.g. a lull before the storm, in the conversation, during the battle 2) v. [Tn] ~ sb/sth (to sth) make (a person or an animal) quiet or less active; soothe sb/sth , e.g. lull a baby to sleep Questions 1)What was Churchill's intention of singing some of their songs? 2) Why did Churchill use ill-favored words such as ups and downs and misfortunes when talking about the menace of the enemy? Part II (Paragraphs 2 5): The body of the speech, in which Churchill drew the lessons to be learned from the past year. 6. deceptive adj likely to deceive; misleading ; e.g. Appearances are often deceptive. > deception n. (=deceit) deceive v. 7. triumph n. [U] (joy or satisfaction at) being successful or victorious > triumph v. triumphant a. triumphal a. , 8. impostor n. someone who pretends to be someone else in order to trick people . e.g. The nurse was soon discovered to be an impostor. 9. far-reaching adj having a great influence or effect e.g. far-reaching implications / impact / effects 10. petty adj. 1) small or trivial; unimportant ; ; : petty details, queries, regulations, troubles 2) having or showing a small mind; mean ; ; : petty and childish behavior * petty about money > pettiness n 11. conviction n. 1) [U, C] ~ (that...) firm opinion or belief : It's my conviction (ie I firmly believe) that complacency is at the root of our troubles. 2) ~ (for sth) [U] the convicting of a person for a crime ; : an offence which carries, on conviction, a sentence of not more than five years' imprisonment >convict vt. n. 12. overwhelming adj. having such a great effect on you that you feel confused and do not know how to react e.g. She felt an overwhelming desire to hit him. e.g. An overwhelming majority of the members were against the idea overwhelm vt. 13. might n. great strength or power ; ; ; : I pushed the rock with all my might. (idm) might is right . > mighty a. 14. liquidate v. 1) get rid of (sb), esp by killing : liquidated his political opponents 2) pay or settle (a debt) . > liquidation n ; liquidator n 15. sponge n. 1) [C] piece of absorbent material, eg gauze, used in surgery . 2) [C, U] a piece of a soft natural or artificial substance full of small holes, which can suck up liquid and is used for washing , > sponge v. ( ) spongy adj 16. slate n. [U] type of blue-grey rock that splits easily into thin flat layers ; : a slate roof 17. stand in the gap: stand out and fight back 18. flinch v 1) [I] move or draw back suddenly, from shock, fear or pain : E.g. He listened to the jeers of the crowd without flinching. 2) [Ipr] ~ from sth/from doing sth avoid thinking about or doing sth unpleasant : E.g. We shall never flinch from (the task of) telling the people the whole truth. > unflinching adj. , 19. persevere v [I, Ipr] ~ (at/in/with sth); continue trying to do sth, esp in spite of difficulty : E.g. She persevered in her efforts to win the championship. > perseverance n [U] ; persevering adj ; Questions: 3) What did Churchill mean by saying "we must learn to be equally good at what is short and sharp and what is long and tough"? 4) Why did Churchill quote Kipling as saying "treat those two impostors just the same"? 5) What lesson had they learnt? 6) Why did Churchill say the mood was different? Part III (Paragraphs 6 8): The concluding part, in which, by changing a word in the additional verse of the school song, Churchill expressed his conviction that the entire nation was blessed with the chance to display its courage to the full in what was, as he elsewhere put it, its finest hour. 20. compliment v [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sb (on sth) express praise or admiration of sb : E.g. I complimented her on her skilful performance. > compliment n. [C] ~ (on sth) complimentary a. complement / implement 21. venture v. [Tn, Tt] to say or do something in an uncertain way because you are afraid it is wrong or will seem stupid ; ; venture to do sth / that venture an opinion/question/word etc > venture n. 22. stern adj 1) severe and strict ; : Police are planning sterner measures to combat crime. 2) serious and grim, not kind or cheerful; expecting to be obeyed ; : a stern face, expression, look, etc > stern n. ; sternness n [U] 23. station n. [C] (dated or fml) social position; rank; status ; ; : people in all stations of life Questions: 7) Why did Churchill replace the word "darker" with "sterner"?