VCE PHYSICAL EDUCATION
UNIT 1 – BODIES IN MOTION
List the 5 functions of the skeletal system and complete the following table.
Label the following features on the diagram below; Periosteum, Marrow, Spongy Bone,
Compact Bone, Blood vessels.
Why are babies bones so flexible?
List two food sources for that provide high amounts of the following vitamins and minerals.
VITAMIN/MINERAL FOOD SOURCE
What is the most affective activity for the health of your skeletal system? Give 5 examples
of these types of activities that increase bone density.
What is osteoporosis?
How can it be delayed?
Complete the following table.
BONE TYPE DESCRIPTION DRAWING
Humerus Tarsals Pelvis Ulna
Cranium Vertebral Column Tibia Metatarsals
Fibula Phalanges Radius Clavicle
Carpals Mandible Sternum Patella (knee cap)
Ribs Femur Metacarpals Phalanges
Scapula Tarsals Pelvis Ulna
Cranium Mandible Tibia Carpals
Fibula Femur Radius Clavicle
Vertebral Column Humerus
Coccyx Sacrum Intervertebral Discs
Lumbar Curve Cervical Curve Thoracic Curve
How many vertebrae are contained in that curve?
What travels down the hollow section of the vertebral column?
Correctly label the following images:
JOINTS OF THE BODY
JOINTS MOVEMENT EXAMPLE
List the characteristics of the a Synovial Joint
SYNOVIAL JOINT DESCRIPTION EXAMPLES
Label the following joints:
TYPES OF CONTRACTIONS
CONTRACTION DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE
List and describe the two types of Isoinertial contractions.
Perform several sit-ups.
1. Where were your abdominal muscles working the hardest?
Hold your body the ‘plank’ position for 20 – 30 seconds.
2. Is there tension in your muscles?
3. Was there any movement?
4. Which exercise was isotonic and which was isometric? Why?
Perform 5 push-ups.
5. What types of contraction occur during the upward & downward phase?
Push against the wall and hold for 30 seconds.
6. Could you maintain the same force for the entire 30 seconds?
7. What type of contraction is this?
8. Why does this type of contraction produce greater muscle gains than the others?
How many muscles are there in the body?
What are the three main functions of muscles?
MUSCLE TYPE DESCRIPTION APPEARANCE
All of these muscles work together to perform a wide variety of tasks; however each
individual muscle is actually only capable of only two movements -
____________________ & ____________________.
CONNECTIVE TISSUES DESCRIPTION EXAMPLES
Gastrocnemius Wrist Flexors Tibialis Anterior Hamstrings
Trapezius Deltoid Rhomboids Biceps
Pectoralis Major Latissimus Dorsi Gluteus Maximus Rectus Abdominis
Triceps Sternocleidomastoid Quadriceps Wrist Extensors
Soleus Obliques Achillies Tendon
For each of the following muscles, describe an action in a sport that uses that particular
ORIGINS & INSERTIONS
What are known as muscle origins?
What are known as muscle insertions?
MOVEMENTS OF THE BODY
MOVEMENTS DESCRIPTION IMAGE
Test your knowledge – Match the movements with the correct descriptions.
Rotation Movement of the ankle so the foot points down.
Adduction A rotation of the sole of the foot outwards.
Inversion Body part moves in a cone (circle) shape.
Circumduction Rotation of the forearm, which causes the palm to face up.
Abduction Angle of the joint in increased.
Plantarflexion A rotation of the sole of the foot inwards.
Extension Movement of the ankle so the foot points up.
Pronation A body part in moved towards the midline of the body.
Supination A body part is moved either outwards or inwards on an axis.
Flexion Rotation of the forearm which causes the palm to face down.
Eversion A body part in moved away from the midline of the body.
Dorsiflexion Angle of the joint decreased.
Our muscles consist of two fibre types; ____________ twitch and ____________ twitch.
Our percentage of each one is determined by our ______________ & ______________.
CHARACTERISTICS FAST TWITCH SLOW TWITCH
Speed of contraction
Ability to change from FT to ST fibres and
Changes of one person having the same
fibre type throughout
Why are males generally stronger than females?
When are our muscles at their strongest point?
For the following sports, list the muscle fibre type that you would use the most.
SPORT MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE
Cross Country Skiing
Netball – Goal Shooter
Netball – Centre
AFL – Full Forward
AFL – Rover
Describe the path taken by impulses from the brain to the muscles.
Anterior & Posterior
Abduction & Adduction
Flexion & Extension
Medial & Lateral Directions
Muscle Origins & Insertions
Proximal & Distal
Red blood cells
1. List the 5 main functions of the skeletal system.
2. List 4 different types of bones in skeletal system. Give an example for each.
3. Refer to the Vertebral Column for the following questions;
a. List the four main sections of the spine.
b. How many vertebrae are there in each section?
c. What is the main function of the vertebral column?
d. Which major muscles surround the spine?
e. Discuss some effects that these muscles exert on the spine.
4. What are the main vitamins that affect the health of the skeletal system and name their
5. What role does exercise play in skeletal health during your life?
6. Find a partner and ask them the location of 10 different muscles in the body. Get them
do the same to you and write your score here:
7. Find a partner and ask them 10 different movements the body can make. Get them do
the same to you and write your score here:
8. What is the man function of the muscular system?
9. Name and describe the three types of muscles.
10. For the following sports state whether the athlete uses mainly slow or fast twitch
muscle fibres or a combination.
Weight-lifting Athletics, Long Jumper
Tour de France Athletics, Decathlete
Soccer Goal-Keeping Tennis
Hockey, Forward Sprint Cycling
Netball, Wing Attack Basketball, Centre
AFL, Centre Half Forward Water Polo
11. Study the image to the right and answer the following questions:
Classify the joint where movement is occurring.
List & label the seven 7 bones present in image.
Label the 2 muscles present.
What types of movement can place at this joint?
Which type of contraction is occurring? Why?