VCE PHYSICAL EDUCATION WORKBOOK UNIT 1 BODIES IN Test your knowledge – Match the movements with the

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  • VCE PHYSICAL EDUCATION WORKBOOK

    UNIT 1 – BODIES IN MOTION

    NAME: ____________________________________

  • SKELETAL SYSTEM

    List the 5 functions of the skeletal system and complete the following table.

    FUNCTION DESCRIPTION

    Label the following features on the diagram below; Periosteum, Marrow, Spongy Bone, Compact Bone, Blood vessels. Why are babies bones so flexible?

    List two food sources for that provide high amounts of the following vitamins and minerals.

    VITAMIN/MINERAL FOOD SOURCE

  • What is the most affective activity for the health of your skeletal system? Give 5 examples of these types of activities that increase bone density.

    What is osteoporosis?

    How can it be delayed?

    Complete the following table.

    BONE TYPE DESCRIPTION DRAWING

  • Humerus Tarsals Pelvis Ulna

    Cranium Vertebral Column Tibia Metatarsals

    Fibula Phalanges Radius Clavicle

    Carpals Mandible Sternum Patella (knee cap)

    Ribs Femur Metacarpals Phalanges

  • Scapula Tarsals Pelvis Ulna

    Cranium Mandible Tibia Carpals

    Fibula Femur Radius Clavicle

    Vertebral Column Humerus

  • VERTEBRAL COLUMN

    Coccyx Sacrum Intervertebral Discs

    Lumbar Curve Cervical Curve Thoracic Curve

    How many vertebrae are contained in that curve?

    Cervical Curve

    Thoracic Curve

    Lumbar Curve

    Sacrum

    Coccyx

    What travels down the hollow section of the vertebral column?

  • ANATOMICAL POSITIONS Correctly label the following images:

  • JOINTS OF THE BODY

    JOINTS MOVEMENT EXAMPLE

    List the characteristics of the a Synovial Joint

  • SYNOVIAL JOINT DESCRIPTION EXAMPLES

    Label the following joints:

  • TYPES OF CONTRACTIONS

    CONTRACTION DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE

    List and describe the two types of Isoinertial contractions.

  • CLASSROOM LABORATORY Perform several sit-ups.

    1. Where were your abdominal muscles working the hardest?

    Hold your body the ‘plank’ position for 20 – 30 seconds.

    2. Is there tension in your muscles?

    3. Was there any movement?

    4. Which exercise was isotonic and which was isometric? Why?

    Perform 5 push-ups.

    5. What types of contraction occur during the upward & downward phase?

    Push against the wall and hold for 30 seconds.

    6. Could you maintain the same force for the entire 30 seconds?

    7. What type of contraction is this?

    8. Why does this type of contraction produce greater muscle gains than the others?

  • MUSCULAR SYSTEM How many muscles are there in the body?

    What are the three main functions of muscles?

    MUSCLE TYPE DESCRIPTION APPEARANCE

    All of these muscles work together to perform a wide variety of tasks; however each

    individual muscle is actually only capable of only two movements -

    ____________________ & ____________________.

    CONNECTIVE TISSUES DESCRIPTION EXAMPLES

  • Gastrocnemius Wrist Flexors Tibialis Anterior Hamstrings

    Trapezius Deltoid Rhomboids Biceps

    Pectoralis Major Latissimus Dorsi Gluteus Maximus Rectus Abdominis

    Triceps Sternocleidomastoid Quadriceps Wrist Extensors

    Soleus Obliques Achillies Tendon

  • For each of the following muscles, describe an action in a sport that uses that particular muscle.

    MUSCLE ACTION

    Quadriceps

    Hamstrings

    Biceps

    Triceps

    Deltoid

    Rectus Abdominals

    Gastrocnemius

    Wrist Flexors

    ORIGINS & INSERTIONS

    What are known as muscle origins?

    What are known as muscle insertions?

  • MOVEMENTS OF THE BODY

    MOVEMENTS DESCRIPTION IMAGE

  • Test your knowledge – Match the movements with the correct descriptions.

    Rotation Movement of the ankle so the foot points down.

    Adduction A rotation of the sole of the foot outwards.

    Inversion Body part moves in a cone (circle) shape.

    Circumduction Rotation of the forearm, which causes the palm to face up.

    Abduction Angle of the joint in increased.

    Plantarflexion A rotation of the sole of the foot inwards.

    Extension Movement of the ankle so the foot points up.

    Pronation A body part in moved towards the midline of the body.

    Supination A body part is moved either outwards or inwards on an axis.

    Flexion Rotation of the forearm which causes the palm to face down.

    Eversion A body part in moved away from the midline of the body.

    Dorsiflexion Angle of the joint decreased.

    MUSCLE FIBRES Our muscles consist of two fibre types; ____________ twitch and ____________ twitch.

    Our percentage of each one is determined by our ______________ & ______________.

    CHARACTERISTICS FAST TWITCH SLOW TWITCH

    Colour

    Size

    Force available

    Oxygen supply

    Speed of contraction

    Genetic inheritance

    Fatigability

    Hypertrophy potential

    Ability to change from FT to ST fibres and vice versa

    Changes of one person having the same fibre type throughout

    Why are males generally stronger than females?

  • When are our muscles at their strongest point?

    For the following sports, list the muscle fibre type that you would use the most.

    SPORT MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE

    Javelin

    Marathon Run

    100m Sprint

    Cross Country Skiing

    1500m Swim

    Golf Swing

    Netball – Goal Shooter

    Netball – Centre

    AFL – Full Forward

    AFL – Rover

    NERVOUS CONTROL Describe the path taken by impulses from the brain to the muscles.

    BRAIN

    MUSCLE

  • MUSCULOSKELETAL GLOSSARY Acetylcholine

    Agonist/Antagonist

    Anterior & Posterior

    Abduction & Adduction

    Cardiac Muscle

    Cartilage

    Compact bone

    Flat bones

    Flexion & Extension

    Haemoglobin

    Irregular bones

  • Isokinetic

    Isometric

    Isotonic

    Ligaments

    Long bones

    Medial & Lateral Directions

    Muscle fibres

    Muscle Origins & Insertions

    Myofibril

    Osteoporosis

    Pennation

  • Proximal & Distal

    Reciprocal Inhibition

    Red blood cells

    Sarcomere

    Short bones

    Smooth Muscle

    Stabiliser

    Synovial Joints

    Tendons

    Vertebrae

  • MUSCULOSKELETAL REVISION 1. List the 5 main functions of the skeletal system.

    2. List 4 different types of bones in skeletal system. Give an example for each.

    3. Refer to the Vertebral Column for the following questions;

    a. List the four main sections of the spine.

    b. How many vertebrae are there in each section?

    c. What is the main function of the vertebral column?

    d. Which major muscles surround the spine?

    e. Discuss some effects that these muscles exert on the spine.

    4. What are the main vitamins that affect the health of the skeletal system and name their

    source?

  • 5. What role does exercise play in skeletal health during your life?

    6. Find a partner and ask them the location of 10 different muscles in the body. Get them

    do the same to you and write your score here:

    7. Find a partner and ask them 10 different movements the body can make. Get them do

    the same to you and write your score here:

    8. What is the man function of the muscular system?

    9. Name and describe the three types of muscles.

    10. For the following sports state whether the athlete uses mainly slow or fast twitch muscle fibres or a combination.

    Weight-lifting Athletics, Long Jumper

    Tour de France Athletics, Decathlete

    Soccer Goal-Keeping Tennis

    Hockey, Forward Sprint Cycling

    Netball, Wing Attack Basketball, Centre

    AFL, Centre Half Forward Water Polo

    11. Study the image to the right and answer the following questions:

  • Classify the joint where movement is occurring.

    List & label the seven 7 bones present in image.

    Label the 2 muscles present.

    What types of movement can place at this joint?

    Which type of contraction is occurring? Why?