VCE Psychology Unit 3 . DP – the interaction between cognitive processes of the brain and its structure - Roles of the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system (somatic & autonomic) and autonomic nervous system (sympathetic & parasympathetic). . Overview of the Nervous system. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
VCE Psychology Unit 3
VCE Psychology Unit 3 DP the interaction between cognitive processes of the brain and its structure - Roles of the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system (somatic & autonomic) and autonomic nervous system (sympathetic & parasympathetic). Overview of the Nervous system
Divisions of the nervous systemThe nervous system is divided into:Peripheral nervous system (PNS)Central nervous system (CNS)
The CNS consists of:BrainSpinal cord
Chapter 4 of text book The central nervous systemPage 177 onwards
Integrate and coordinate all incoming neural informationInitiate messages sent to different parts of the body
The role of the central nervous systemAmazing brain factsYour skin weighs twice as much as your brain.Your brain uses 20% of total oxygen pumping around your body.750ml of blood pumps through your brain every minuteIt consists of 100 billion neurons.Time until unconsciousness after loss of blood supply to brain is 8 10 secondsApproximately 75% of it is water.If you could harness the power used by your brain you could power a 10 watt light bulb!
Cerebral cortexIt is the convoluted or folded outer layer or covering of the two hemispheres.It is around 2mm thickIt contains of the entire brains neurons.Its bulges and grooves account for the increased surface area.It is involved with information processing activities such as perception, language, learning, memory, thinking, problem solving, control of voluntary body movements.
The cerebral cortexIt is believed that the size of a species cerebral cortex is linked to intellectual ability.
The bigger the cerebral cortex, the more capable the organism is of intelligent behaviour such as thinking, problem solving and decision making.
Corpus callosumThe corpus callosum is a bridge of nerve tissue that connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres.It serves as the main communication pathway or cross over station for neural messages between the two cerebral hemispheres.It comprises over 200 million nerve fibres.
Cerebral hemispheresThese are the two almost symmetrical brain structures that appear to be separated by a deep groove (longitudinal fissure) running from the front to back of the brain.They are connected at several points by strands of nerve tissue.They are referred to respectively as the left and right hemispheres.While they share some common functions, they also have specialised functions.Eg. the left hemisphere receives sensory information from the right side of the body and controls movements on the right side.Left hemisphere is primarily involved with language, right hemisphere is primarily involved with spatial tasks and recognition of faces.
Four cortical lobes
The role of the four lobes of the cerebral cortexControl of motor coordinationProcessing of sensory informationProcessing Visual informationAuditory processingPrimary cortex involved in all lobesAssociation areas
Cortical areas1. Sensory cortex areas receive and process information from the senses.2. Motor cortex area receives, processes and sends information about voluntary bodily movements.3. Association cortex areas integrate sensory, motor and other information and are involved in complex mental abilities.
Homer Simpsons Brain
Using materials provided, construct and label a brain that includes;- frontal lobe- parietal lobe- occipital lobe- temporal lobe- primary cortex areas associated with each lobe- association areas- wernickes area- brocas area- brain stem- cerebellum
Now lets make a brain!!Chapter 5 of text book The peripheral nervous systemPage 271 onwards
The CNS relies on the PNS to provide it with information about both the external world and the bodys internal environment.To carry messages from the CNS to various parts of the bodyperipheral means outlying or surrounding. Therefore the peripheral nervous stem is located The role of the peripheral nervous systemThe PNSThe PNS is a network of neurons outside the CNS that extends from the top of the head and throughout the body.
It is divided into the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.
Divisions of the PNS
Somatic nervous systemInitiates all skeletal muscle activity, enabling voluntary movement (E.g. -walking)Transits information from sensory receptors (E.g. - in skin and muscles) to the CNS (sensory function)Controls voluntary movement of skeletal muscles through messages carried from the CNS via motor neurons to the muscles (motor function).Autonomic nervous systemNetwork of neurons connecting the CNS to the bodys internal muscles, organs and glandsSelf-regulates independently of the brain, although it is still influenced by the brain.Is automatic and does not require conscious controlFunctions continuously, whether the person is awake, active, asleep or in a comaModulates activity rather than initiates activityAutonomic nervous system contdThe autonomic nervous system is divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system.
Sympathetic nervous systemActivates internal muscles, organs and glands to prepare the body for activity, or to confront or flee from a threatening situation (fight-flight response)Increases survival by allowing rapid responses in an emergency situation sends a message to the adrenal glands to secrete the hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline, which travel around the body via the bloodstream, activating various muscles, glands and organs.
Parasympathetic nervous systemKeeps the body working efficiently and counterbalances the activity initiated by the sympathetic nervous systemRestores the body to as state of calm, therefore maintaining homeostasisDominates the sympathetic nervous system most of the time
Clip from internet about Nervous System comparison Enjoy!http://itc.gsw.edu/faculty/gfisk/anim/autonomicns.swf