Vincent Maloney

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Transformation of the Traditional Organic Chemistry Lecture Sequence into a Hybrid of Face to Face Peer Learning and Online Lecture. Vincent Maloney. Introduction. Outline Journey to “flipping” the course i.e. Why? Previous course structure Flipped course structure Student survey - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Transformation of the Traditional Organic Chemistry Lecture Sequence into a Hybrid of Face to Face Peer Learning and Online Lecture

Vincent MaloneyIntroductionOutlineJourney to flipping the course i.e. Why?Previous course structureFlipped course structureStudent surveyAssessment and ConclusionsObservationsWhat was the same and what was different?Final ConclusionsWhy Change Everything?CELT Fall Teaching Conference 2007, Todd ZakrajsekHake, R. R. American Journal Physics, 66, 1998, 64-74If this is true, should I still be lecturing?

L. Nilson, Teaching at Its BestBlooms TaxonomyKnowledgeComprehensionApplicationAnalysisSynthesisEvaluationHow many of these outcomes do you think traditional lecture addresses?a. 0 b. 1 c. 2 d. 4 e. 6

Blooms TaxonomyHow many of these outcomes do you think traditional lecture addresses?0 b. 1 c. 2 d. 4 e. 6

According to L. Nilson, Teaching at Its Best p. 107Knowledge TransferCATs, JiTT, Peer to peer problem solving, POGIL address more learning outcomes, all remainingIf this is true, should I still be lecturing?

Some Further References Smith, K. A., Sheppard, S. R., Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R.T Journal of Engineering Education, 94, No. 1 2005, 87-101. Nelson, C. E. Want Brighter, Harder Working Students? Change Pedagogies! Cooperative Learning in Higher Education, 2010, 119-140.Nelson, C. E. in Evolution Challenges: Integrating Research and practice in Teaching and Learning about Evolution Rosengren, K. S.; Brem, S.; Evans, E. M.; Sinatra, G. M. Oxford Scholarship Online, 2012 DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199730421.001.0001

MOOCsMassive Open Online CoursesDisruption of higher educationWorld famous professor from elite institution provides recorded lectures, courses materials, and assessment software (online quizzes, exams, etc.)Students answer each others questions through crowdsourcing, meet ups, etc.Claim: courses taught better at a fraction of the costHave moved past hype and even backlash phase Can university professors be replaced? Should courses be taught a different way?

Recorded LecturesAround for a long timeWhats differentMuch easier to access and watch anywhereMaybe courses should be done differently

Other BenefitsRetentionIn specific classAt univeristyGraduation ratesInteractive learningInteractions that build relationshipsStudents and professorsOthers studentsReferences Smith, K. A., Sheppard, S. R., Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R.T Journal of Engineering Education, 94, No. 1 2005, 87-101.Chamblis, D. F., Takacs, C. G. How College Works, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2014.

Traditional Lecture: Straw Man

Students read text before lecture (maybe)Lecture given in traditional mannerAfter class, students work on assignmentsMay work togetherMay ask instructor questionsProblems in understanding not recognized until homework turned in or quiz/exam Organic Chemistry IPFW

Traditional lecture plus Clickers questions~ 3 per class with peer to peer problem solvingReview sessions 2x per weekPeer to peer problem solving~40% of class attendedArrangements for those who could not attendLectures recorded on Tegrity for subsequent viewingCourses partially flipped

Flipping IPFW Organic Chemistry Record lectures < 20 min.Lecture length based on topic1.5 20 min.Chunking (Nilson)295 lectures recorded year130 fall semester17 h, 20.5 classes!165 spring semester17 h, 20.5 classes!Students watch lectures before classFlipping IPFW Organic ChemistryStudents watch lectures before classStudents complete online homework assignment in Blackboard162 questions in fall98 questions in springFlipping IPFW Organic ChemistryFace to Face ClassNearly entire class devoted to peer to peer problem solving98 students fall semester88 students spring semesterAsk questions of increasing complexity, scaffolding10 12 questions per classEnd of Week: attempted Muddiest Point CATFlipping IPFW Organic ChemistryReview session and some traditional homework from text now in classEveryone benefits from review sessionsShould be time neutral for studentExam/quiz schedule kept the sameSummary of ResultsGood news Students like itBad newsNo improvement in gradesDid no harm!1st attempt Foundation from which to improve Student SurveyGiven last week both semestersIRB approval pending22 questions Likert Scale1 strongly disagree to 5 strongly agreeStudent SurveyI prefer watching the online lectures because it allows more time to work on difficult problems and concepts in class.

I believe that I learned material better with the current format than I would have if the course had been presented in the traditional format.

Student SurveyI understand the material better when I can work on problems with other students during class.

I got to know more classmates in this class than I would have in a traditional format.

The current format should be continued for organic chemistry.

ConclusionsSolid majority believes they are learning material betterLarger majority wanted to continue this method for 2nd semesterIf meeting and building relationships helps with retention and obtaining a degree, then there is evidence that flipping the classroom does that.Assessment and GradesAssessmentPre- and post-test scores not availableCompared grades to 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 organic classes.Obviously limited, many variables, exams and quizzes not the samePerhaps broad changes can be observedData complicated by drop/make-up policy and changes to accommodate flipEnd of spring semester: National ACS 2004 Organic Chemistry ExamAssessment and GradesGrading FallYear QuizzesNomenclatureQuizExamsFinalExamClickerHomeworkTotal20131000200150505055020121002520015025505502011100252001502550550Assessment and GradesGrading SpringYear QuizzesNomenclatureQuizExamsFinalExamClickerHomeworkTotal20141000200200505060020131002520020025506002012100252002002550600Assessment and Grades Overall ResultsOver the entire, year the performance of the flipped class was comparable to the previous two traditional classes including the ACS examLower withdrawal rate in fall may indicate flipped classes may favor persistence, but not observed in springWhatever effects the course flip had, they are small in comparison to other factors leading to variability in scores.

ObservationsFlipped classrooms are not a cure allDefinitely agreeMuch time investment required up-front but more efficient over time.Agree, but manageable Maybe best to evolve course so that flip doesnt occur all at onceWill take a few iterations to get it rightCertainly hope thats true!

ObservationsStudents may resist flipped learning.Some uncertainty at first but very little pushbackTwo proxies did express concerns but otherwise no problemsSome thought quizzes and exams were harder than previous yearsObservationsNever call your class: a flipped classroom or experimentVery careful to avoid these termsExplained in syllabus and class that evidence in literature has shown that this works betterExplained I was early adopter and not innovatorMay explain low amount of pushback

ObservationsMake sure assessment cover out of class assignmentsDefinitely agreeVery little review before questionsStudents preferred to work on questions and see explanationsDespite 295 video lectures available, students will still use other sources despite whether correct or not

ObservationsSimilar positive student commentsWhy only 17 h of lecture per semester?!?!After removingStarting and ending class comments/announcementsReviewResponses to questions asked by students in classMost classroom assessment techniques and clicker questions, thats all that was leftClassroom assessment techniques and flipping the class does not involve sacrificing content.

ObservationsIncreased rigorMore synthesis problemsBetter lecture descriptionsMore interactions with students after classSuggested ways to improve online lecturesMore flexibility in pacing materialIncreased use of websites, software, and videosMore engagement with material than in years past

Outline of TalkStraw Man: Traditional LectureLearning OutcomesWhat different techniques addressThe FlipMy Small flipMy upcoming Big FlipEvolveLecture Capture TechnologyInitial useCapabilitiesCourse Flip UseVendorsWorkshop FliporganicERs websitesmall group discussion of each questionreport outLast Comments and Acknowledgments

ObservationsMuddiest Point CATAsk students to write one or two points that they found most difficult to understand on a sheet of paper and hand in at end of classEarly on much agreement on most difficult topics which lead to 3 new videosOnly a handful of responses per topic

Outline of TalkStraw Man: Traditional LectureLearning OutcomesWhat different techniques addressThe FlipMy Small flipMy upcoming Big FlipEvolveLecture Capture TechnologyInitial useCapabilitiesCourse Flip UseVendorsWorkshop FliporganicERs websitesmall group discussion of each questionreport outLast Comments and Acknowledgments

ObservationsOK, but why arent grades better?

Outline of TalkStraw Man: Traditional LectureLearning OutcomesWhat different techniques addressThe FlipMy Small flipMy upcoming Big FlipEvolveLecture Capture TechnologyInitial useCapabilitiesCourse Flip UseVendorsWorkshop FliporganicERs websitesmall group discussion of each questionreport outLast Comments and Acknowledgments

ObservationsRoom for improvementNeed to improve getting out to studentsAsk at least 1 question per class where students write answersStart with higher difficulty level for questionsChange pacing and distribution of questionsMore structure to order and choice of questionsScaffolding!Build up student mastery through a series of questionsNMR 1H NMR allows following information to be determined about a molecule what types of H atoms (protons) are presente.g. -CH2-CH3-CH2-O-CH2-Cl# of H atoms (proton