World Geography 3200/3202
Unit 5: Secondary and Tertiary Activities
Chapters 13 & 14
Terms to know:
Primary production- extracting resources (fishing, farming, logging)
Secondary Production- manufacturing raw materials into a finished product (food products, paper, wood products)
Tertiary Sector- provides services (hair dresser, lawyer, teacher, salesclerk, office)
Quaternary Sector- more specialized work in research, and high tech communication
Outcome 5.1-5.3 Cond
Inputs- materials and factors that go into making a product. (natural inputs include raw materials, land, power and human inputs include buildings, labor, decisions, capital, machinery. See fig 13.1 page 217
3 Types of manufacturing processes to change a raw material into a usable form:
1) Conditioning process- minimal change to resource (logs to lumber, fish to fillets)
Outcome 5.1-5.3 Cond
2) Analytic process- resource is converted to a number of different products (cow into leather, milk, cheese, ground beef)
3) Synthetic process- Several resources are combined together to make one resource. (light bulb has glass, tungsten, nitrogen and aluminum)
Outputs- finished products (output from fish plant is fish sticks or fillets.Value added- the increase in the value of an article brought about by the production process minus the cost of production.
Outcomes 5.1-5.3 Cond
Read case study on page 219-220 manufacturing wrigleys gum
Create a flow chart outlining the processes in making gum
Answer # 6 what type of manufacturing is involved in making gum? explain
Outcomes 5.4- 5.7
Teacher lead: read pages 217-218 discuss
Terms to know
Labour-intensive: requires a lot of person hours to produce the product .(jewelry making, cameras) usually specialized skills performed by craftsmen.
Capital- intensive: Requires a lot of expensive equipment to make the product (car industry, automated machines performs job of people)
Outcomes 5.4- 5.7 Cond
Light industry: produces goods that are light in weight, high in value and often very intricate. Marketed for consumers. Productivity/ worker is typically high (toys)
Heavy industry: needs large quantities of often bulky raw materials, transported by water or rail (ship building). Marketed to other industries. Productivity/worker is low. Often dirty and noisy. Not geared to general consumer.
Outcomes 5.4- 5.7 Cond
Answer # 5 on previous case study wrigleysgum Labor-intensive or capital-intensive?why?
Read Case Study 221-223 and answer # 10
Heavy or light industry? ExplainAnswer: Steel Production is Heavy industry because
- requires large amounts of labor(low productivity/worker)
- Large amounts of investment
- it has heavy weighted materials(iron ore, or pelletized iron concentrate, limestone, coal or heavy oil)
Site and situational factors to consider when deciding where to locate an industry:
Site factors (physical location)
Land- price, level, good drainages, dense well settled soil, room for expansion
Sufficient amount of land
Can energy be supplied
Access to labor (human factor)
Outcomes 5.8-5.10 Cond
Situational factors-how the location is situated in reference to other locations or how it related to other locations
Is it close to market (if the finished product is heavier than the raw materials, the industry will locate itself closer to market)
Is it close to raw material (the heavier and bulkier the raw material, the closer the industry will be to it, to reduce transportation costs)
Outcomes 5.8-5.10 Cond
Terms to knowResource-oriented industry Located close to the resource because the raw materials are
too heavy/ bulky to transport (high transportation cost) often communities spring up around resource industries :
labrador city(iron ore)Churchill falls(hydro-electricity)
Market-oriented industry located close to market because the product is expensive to
transport. Resources used to make it are not expensive to transport. Ex. Softdrink
Outcomes 5.8-5.10 Cond
Weight Gain- when product weight is greater after production. Ex. Soda
Weight Loss- when product weight is lighter after production. Ex. Iron ore
Discuss Fig 13.7 page 225 and #11 page 223
Student Activity: page 226-227 #14,15,16,17
Define Agglomerating Tendency (see notes)
Outcome 5.12: Characteristics of Labour Force
Class Discussion:A. What are some characteristics of a regions labor force
which may attract industry to the area?....... Is there sufficient number of workers (labor intensive)? What is the skill level of workers (capital intensive)? What is the work ethic of the workers. Are they dedicated,
motivated, dependable, innovative, etc.? What is the employee ability to learn? Are the wage levels attractive? What are the health standards and safety regulations of the
region. What are other employment benefits which may impact total operating costs?
Is the region highly unionized or non-unionized?Cond.
Outcome 5.12 Cond
B. After reading the case study on page 229, what are some labor-related factors which make Nebraska an attractive location for industry?
C. What is the key labor factor which makes less developed countries different from more developed countries?
Outcome 5.13: How Government can Influence the Location of Industries
Class DiscussionAfter reading the right side of page 224 and the left side of page 226, discuss some possible government actions (positive and negative) which may influence an industries site decision.
Examples: (good and bad)Financial incentives such as exemption from taxes for a set period, wage subsidies, grants, loan guarantees, low interest loans, educational provisions.On the other hand stringent govt regulations such as legislation on safety or pollution may act as negative influences. Likewise, corrupt govts may be associated with a high crime rate in the area or the govt may be embroiled in a land claims controversy with a indigenous (native) group.
Outcome 5.14: Highly Industrialized Areas
Using figure 13.6 on page 223 and the map on the cover of your book, answer the following:
1. Identify 4 highly industrialized areas of the world.
2. Identify 3 agricultural low income economies of the world.
Outcomes 5.15 and 5.17: Role of Stakeholders to Identify and Avert an Envirnomental Risk Posed by Industry
Examples: Any plant which poses an environmental risk.. What are some of the actions which should be taken?......
Lobby groups (ex: Can. Coaliation Against Acid Rain) mustmake the public and govt aware of any concerns.
Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) must be carried out by independent firms to identify impacts of the industry.
Constant monitoring and safety checks must be carried out to minimize the risks.
Constant training of workers to be aware of the actions needed to identify and avert a risk.
Emergency Measure Plans (EMPs) must be put in place to address the impacts indentified.
Outcome 5.16: Industrialized Areas and Areas at Risk of Environmental
Degradation Class Discussion: Refer to figure 13.17 on page 238 to answer the
following: Identify three areas of the world presently
experiencing high levels of acid rain. Are these areas industrialized? Is there a correlation between industrialization and
environmental degradation? What role does the industrialized world have when it
comes to addressing environment issues?
Outcome 5.18: Social/Moral Issues Associated with Manufacturing
Operations Classroom Discussion
Review the case study on pages 235-236:
Is child labor a local concern in less developed countries where it exists or is it a global concern?....
Refer to the last paragraph on page.
How does child labor prevent a less developed country from being more economically developed?
Share the story of Arman from Afghanistan.
Outcomes 5.19-5.21: Private and Public Tertiary (Service) Activities
Tertiary activities refers to..any worker who is providing a service for individual consumers, industry or government.
Public tertiary activities are those services.provided by government employees. This category of tertiary activities make up the largest share of the service sector.
Private tertiary activities are those services.provided by non-government agencies.
Outcomes 5.19-5.21 CondFour Categories of Tertiary Activities:(1) Distributive Services Getting products from the manufacturer to the consumer. Examples: ..Or transmitting information(A) Wholesale business buy large amounts of products from manufacturers and sell smaller quantities to retailers. Retail stores in turn sell these products to consumers.(B) Cable companies or internet providers distribute information to customers
(2) Financial Services Involves providing capital ($) to manufacturing companies and individual consumers. Examples:(A) Banking institutions provide loans(B) Insurance companies provide coverage for financial losses
(3) Personal Services Food services, entertainment, legal assistance and a wide range of other institutions provide personal services for manufacturing and consumers. Examples: . movie theatres, hair salons, etc.
(4) Government Services Any service provided by a government employee. This in the only category which provides a public service. Examples: .teachers, doctors, nurses, etc.
Outcome 5.22: Quaternary ActivitiesThe quaternary industry or sector is a special type of
tertiary activity Like the tertiary sector, this sector is service based.
However, it is kept separate from the tertiary sector because it involves the use of high technology to either produce, retrieve, store, or distribute information. (Research, development and technology)
Examples: (A)Mechanical engineer developing the next engine
for a leading automotive company. (B) Chemical engineer developing the next drug for
cancer treatment. (C) Computer designer developing the next touch pad
Outcome 5.23: Location of Tertiary Industries
What determines where a tertiary industry locates?(A) Type of Service: Is it a Public or Private Service? This will largely determine
its strategic location. Examples.. Public services are strategically located to service the
people. Consider the location of hospitals, schools, human resource centers, law enforcement offices, etc. All of these will be "regionally located" to service a specific number of people in order for government to justify the expenditure of money.
Private services are located where the owners/operators feel they will realize an economy return such as the location of hotels/motels and restaurants.
Outcome 5.23 Cond.(B) Price/ Distance from the Customer: Some services must be located within a reasonable distance
from the consumer, especially if the service is private. Closeness to the consumer reduces time and money needed to be spent to reach the service. For example, a movie theatre, beauty salon.
Note that with both of these factors Population Size has a major influence on the location of a tertiary service and more importantly the number of the same type of service offered in an area.
For example, which location would offer more restaurants, Stephenville, NL. or Miami, FL.?
Student Activity: # 9 on page 244
Outcome 5.24: Factors Affecting the Location of A Quaternary Industry
Students should read pages 249-250
(1) Access to Capital/Infrastructure
The country must have the ability to access the financial resources and technological equipment to successfully and actively participate in the quaternary industry.
(2) Access to a Skilled Labor Force:
The country must have the ability to access highly educated and/or technologically trained individuals.
Outcome 5.25: Factors Accounting for Patterns in World Trade for a Selected
Commodity Students should read pages 274-275 and analyze maps on page 276-277.(1) Shipment by Water: Why is 90% of all world goods shipped by water?..... Water is the most economical method to move large quantities of goods
over long distances. (Low line-haul costs compared to other modes of transport).
(2) Regional Share of World Trade: What determines the amount of trade a specific country will have for a
specific commodity?.......... If more than one country trades in a product (ex: wheat/fish), a country's
relative share of the world market will be based upon the costs of their inputs (ex: wages, infrastructure costs, line-haul costs, etc.). Overall, the more competitive their costs are the more they will control the world trade in that product.
Outcome 5.25: Cond.
(3) Regionalization of World Trade: Who actually trades with who?...... Countries tend to trade with countries who are closest to
them. This reduces transportation costs and makes their commodity more competitive over short distances. The exception to this is when countries have no other choice but buy from distant countries. For example, Canada cannot get all of its tea in the western hemisphere so it imports it for distant countries such as India, China and Sri Lanka.
(4) Level of Economic Development: How does development affect the amount of trade?..... The more developed a country becomes the more world
trade it will secure. Economic development feeds the growth of trade and in turn trade feeds economic growth.
Outcome 5.26: Factors Accounting for Patterns in Mass Communication
Students should read pages 293-294 What do we mean by mass communication?
As we have discussed on several occasions, patterns of mass communication are affected by the following:
(1) Access to capital (money and equipment)
(2) Knowledge and technological ability (access to research and development)
(3) Political Will (governments have to work with other companies to make it happen)
Class Activity: # 16 on page 294
Outcome 5.27: How Mass Communication Can Affect the Location of a Work Place
Telecommuting or teleworking (working at home instead of working at a specific company workplace outside of the home) is common because of the availability of mass communication such as email, teleconferencing, videoconferencing, skype, twittering, etc.
The use of Satellite Offices in another part of the world from the company is another example of teleworking. (Bell Canada).
More Examples :(1) many multi-national companies provide services to one country by operating in another country. For example, many U.S. insurance companies offer their products to U.S citizens but the service is processed by employees located in Scotland.(2) Medical Services in the United States, and many other developed countries worldwide, is such that a doctor in one state can use computer aided robotic equipment to operate on a patient in another state.(3) Education is such now that distance education makes having to attend a physical site unnecessary (ie: Athabasca University is a virtual university in Alberta and CDLI is a computer aided ins...