World Geography Chapter 17 PPT Geography Chapter 17 PPT

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  • Welcome to Presentation Plus!

    Presentation Plus! Glencoe World Geography

    Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

    Developed by FSCreations, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio 45202

    Send all inquiries to:

    GLENCOE DIVISION

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    Columbus, Ohio 43240

  • Splash Screen

  • Contents

    Chapter Introduction

    Section 1The Land

    Section 2Climate and Vegetation

    Chapter Summary & Study Guide

    Chapter Assessment

    Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.

  • Intro 1

  • Intro 2

    Describe the major landforms and natural resources of North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia.

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    Chapter Objectives

    Discuss the climate and vegetation of North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia.

  • Intro 3

    As you read this chapter, list ways the physical geography of North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia shapes the lives of people in the region. Include examples you discover in media sources.

  • End of Intro

  • Section 1-1

    The Land

    Identify which land and water features dominate the region.

    Objectives

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    Discuss how the regions major rivers are important to its people. Explain why much of the world is economically dependent on the region.

  • Section 1-2

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    alluvial soil

    The Land

    wadi kum phosphate

    Terms to Know

  • Section 1-3

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    Nile River Tigris River Euphrates River Atlas Mountains Caucasus Mountains

    Red Sea

    The Land

    Arabian Peninsula Persian Gulf Sinai Peninsula Anatolia Dead Sea Caspian Sea Aral Sea

    Places to Locate

  • Section 1-4

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  • Section 1-5

    The Nile River, flowing through northeastern Africa to the Mediterranean Sea, keeps Egypt from being entirely desert. For centuries, the Nile flooded its banks every summer, covering nearby fields with fertile soil. Dams, especially the Aswan High Dam, now control Nile flooding, drastically reducing sediment deposits and fertility.

  • Section 1-6

    Seas and Peninsulas

    North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia feature numerous seas and peninsulas.

    (pages 421422)

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    These include the Mediterranean, Red, and Black Seas as well as the Arabian and Sinai Peninsulas. The Dead Sea, the Caspian Sea, and the Aral Sea are actually landlocked bodies of salt water.

  • Section 1-7

    Seas and Peninsulas (cont.)

    The Aral Sea, which began to dry up when the Soviet Union diverted river source waters for irrigation, seems to be coming back.

    (pages 421422)

  • Section 1-8

    What might people have done to revive the Aral Sea?

    Possible answers: They may have diverted water into it, or they might have restricted the use of its water for irrigation.

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    Seas and Peninsulas (cont.)

    (pages 421422)

  • Section 1-9

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    Rivers

    Major Rivers: Cradles of Civilization

    (pages 422424)

    The Nile River Valley provides water and a lush, fertile living space for about 90 percent of Egypts population.

    The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers help irrigate farms throughout Syria, Turkey, and Iraq.

    Streambeds Runoff from infrequent, violent rainstorms creates temporary streams in arid North Africa and Southwest Asia.

  • Section 1-10

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    Rivers (cont.)

    (pages 422424)

  • Section 1-11

    Why are streams from rainstorms only temporary?

    Possible answers: Water from the storms stays on the surface and soon evaporates in the sun. Storms are too infrequent to create permanent streams. The sun dries up the water faster than it falls.

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    Rivers (cont.)

    (pages 422424)

  • Section 1-12

    Plains, Plateaus, and Mountains

    Coastal Plains Although most of the region is made up of deserts and mountains, the coastal plains along the Mediterranean provide the agricultural base of the region.

    (pages 424425)

  • Section 1-13

    Highlands

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    (pages 424425)

    Enough precipitation falls on the Atlas Mountains of North Africa to make them hospitable to settlement and farming. The Asir Mountains of the Arabian Peninsula are also agriculturally productive. The Caucasus Mountains between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea are known for their grandeur and beauty. Desert covers much of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.

  • Section 1-14

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    (pages 424425)

  • Section 1-15

    Which of the above areas do you think are most heavily populated? Why do you think so?

    The coastal plains of the Mediterranean and the mountain areas that support farming are probably heavily populated. Much of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are likely to be sparsely populated.

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    (pages 424425)

  • Section 1-16

    Earthquakes

    The shifting tectonic plates of the region have built mountains, shifted landmasses, and caused earthquakes. A 1999 earthquake in Turkey measured 7.4 on the Richter scale, toppling more than 76,000 buildings and killing nearly 20,000 people.

    (page 425)

  • Section 1-17

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    (page 425)

    Earthquakes (cont.)

  • Section 1-18

    What might be done to reduce the damage from earthquakes in heavily populated areas?

    Possible answers: Adopt stricter building codes, and retrofit existing structures to make them more earthquake-resistant. We could also develop new technologies for building in earthquake-prone areas, and continue research efforts to help predict earthquakes.

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    Earthquakes (cont.)

    (page 425)

  • Section 1-19

    Natural Resources

    Oil and Natural Gas About 70 percent of the worlds oil reserves and 33 percent of the worlds natural gas reserves are found in the region.

    (page 426)

  • Section 1-20

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    Minerals Turkmenistan has the worlds largest deposits of sulfate. Morocco ranks third in the production of phosphate.

    (page 426)

    The region may contain up to 10 percent of the worlds iron ore reserves.

    Natural Resources (cont.)

  • Section 1-21

    Building Diverse Economies Many countries in the region are diversifying their economies so that they are not so dependent on their oil and mineral exports.

    Natural Resources (cont.)

    (page 426)

  • Section 1-22

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    What do these facts suggest about the regions economy?

    The abundance of oil and natural gas suggests that the region does not need to import these energy sources. The region is self-sufficient, and it can export its natural resources in trade for finished products that it does not possess. The region has the potential for future development.

    Natural Resources (cont.)

    (page 426)

  • Section 1-23

    Checking for Understanding

    __ 1.in the desert, a streambed that is dry except during a heavy rain

    __ 2.depositof rich soil made up of sand and mud deposited by running water

    __ 3.natural mineral containing chemical compounds often used in fertilizers

    __ 4.term for deserts in Central Asia

    A.alluvial soil

    B.wadi

    C.kum

    D.phosphate

    Define Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column.

    A

    D

    C

    B

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  • Section 1-24

    Critical Thinking

    Comparing and Contrasting How are the Caspian Sea and the Aral Sea alike? How are they different?

    The Caspian and Aral seas are alike because they are landlocked bodies of saltwater that have suffered from a decrease in the flows of feeder rivers. The are different because the Aral is smaller and has shrunk a great deal more than the Caspian Sea.

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  • Section 1-25

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    Critical Thinking

    Predicting Consequences How might development of oil fields in the Caspian Sea affect the region of North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia?

    The development of oil fields may improve the economies of countries that share the Caspian, but it may also increase pollution in the area.

  • Section 1-26

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    Critical Thinking

    Analyzing Information How has diversification affected the economiesof countries in the region?

    Oil-producing countries, such as Libya and the UAE, are shifting to banking, tourism, and other areas to support their economies when the oil runs out.

  • Section 1-27

    Analyzing Maps

    Place Study the physical-political map below. What physical feature dominates western Iran?

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  • Section 1-28

    Analyzing Maps

    The Zagros Mountains dominate western Iran.

  • Section 1-29

    Applying Geography

    Benefits of Rivers Write a descriptive paragraph explaining how the major rivers of North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia benefit people in the region.

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    Possible answer: Rivers of the region supply freshwater for drinking and irrigation and create fertile farmlands along their banks and through their valleys.

  • Section 1-30

    Close

    Speculate on the kinds of challenges that the region of North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia faces.

  • End of Section 1

  • Section 2-1

    Climate and Vegetation

    Explain how the climates of the region differ.

    Objectives

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    Describe how the needs of a growing population have affected the natural vegetation of the region.

  • Section 2-2

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    Terms to Know

    oasis

    Climate and Vegetation

    pastoralism cereal

  • Section 2-3

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    Sahara

    Places to Locate

    Climate and Vegetation

    Rub al Khali Garagum (Kara Kum)

  • Section 2-4

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  • Section 2-5

    Because the coastal city of Agadir in Morocco has 300 days of sunshine per year, its beaches are a popular tourist attraction, as are other Moroccan beaches along the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.

  • Section 2-6

    Water: A Precious Resource

    Rainfall is plentiful in some parts of North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia, but in most places water is scarce.

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    (pages 427430)

    Desert Climate Desert areas, such as North Africas Sahara, cover almost 50 percent of the region. In the deserts, summers are long and hot, winters are cold, the land is mostly flat, and precipitation averages about 10 inches (25 cm) per year.

  • Section 2-7

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    Water: A Precious Resource (cont.)

    Steppe Climate Steppe is the second-largest climate region.

    Semi-arid conditions with light precipitation support short grasses that are grazed by livestock.

    (pages 427430)

  • Section 2-8

    What would it be like to live in the desert?

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    It would be a lifestyle with minimal technology. Food and water would be scarce, and travel might be hazardous, especially during sandstorms. Clothing would need to be suited to a hot climate.

    Water: A Precious Resource (cont.)

    (pages 427430)

  • Section 2-9

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    Climatic Variations

    Exports and Tourists The Mediterranean climate region features cool, rainy winters and hot, dry summers.

    (pages 430431)

    This fertile area exports citrus fruits, olives, and grapes to Europe and the United States. Tourism is an important industry.

  • Section 2-10

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    Climatic Variations (cont.)

    (pages 430431)

  • Section 2-11

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    Rainfall Receiving plenty of rainfall, highlands areas support forests and grain crops without irrigation.

    Climatic Variations (cont.)

    A Sign of Things to Come? Climate changes have turned some grassy plains in the region into deserts.

    (pages 430431)

  • Section 2-12

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    Climatic Variations (cont.)

    (pages 430431)

  • Section 2-13

    Which climate would you prefer to live in? Why?

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    Possible answer: The Mediterranean or highlands regions would be better to live in because of the relatively moderate temperatures, adequate rainfall, and prevalent vegetation.

    Climatic Variations (cont.)

    (pages 430431)

  • Section 2-14

    Checking for Understanding

    __ 1.any grain, such as barley, oats, or wheat, grown for food

    __ 2.the raising of livestock

    __ 3.small area in a desert where water and vegetation are found

    A.oasis

    B.pastoralism

    C.cereal

    Define Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column.

    B

    A

    C

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  • Section 2-15

    Critical Thinking

    Comparing and Contrasting Compare and contrast agriculture in steppe climate regions with that of Mediterranean climate regions.

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    In steppe climate regions, there are short grasses as pasture for livestock. In Mediterranean climate regions, there are cereals and food grains, fruits, olives, and grapes.

  • Section 2-16

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    Critical Thinking

    Analyzing Cause and Effect Why has natural vegetation declined in areas of North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia?

    Climatic changes and human activity have turned grassy plains into desert.

  • Section 2-17

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    Drawing Conclusions How did climate changes in the Sahara centuries ago affect its people?

    Critical Thinking

    Climate change led to the raising of brush-grazing sheep, goats, and camels instead of grass-hungry cattle. Climate change also led to the relocation toward the coast, rivers, and oases.

  • Section 2-18

    Analyzing Maps

    Region Study the map of climate regions on the top right and the map of natural vegetation on the bottom right. What kind of natural vegetation thrives in Mediterranean climates?

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  • Section 2-19

    Analyzing Maps

    Chaparral vegetation thrives in Mediterranean climates.

  • Section 2-20

    Applying Geography

    Climate and Population Write a paragraph explaining the possible effects of climate on settlement patterns in North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia.

    Click...