Text of World War II Causes of WWII -Hitler and the Nazis gained power in Germany in 1933 during a state of...
World War II
Causes of WWII -Hitler and the Nazis gained power in Germany in 1933 during a state of economic depression. -Hitler blamed Germanys problems on the terms of the Treaty of Versailles signed at the end of WWI. -Hitler ignored the Treaty of Versailles and began rebuilding the German armed forces. -March 1938, the Nazis annex Austria. -In June the allied countries appease Germany by allowing them to annex Czechoslovakia Why did no other country help them? -But when German armies invaded Poland, England and France declared war on Germany. -WWII started in September 1939 when Germany invaded Poland. What led to this event? -Appeasement the policy of avoiding war by granting an aggressive country whatever it wants -The two sides would be: 1) The Allies Britain, France, the U.S.S.R., the U.S., Canada, and other commonwealth countries. 2)The Axis Germany, Italy, Japan.
The Phony War German armies invade Poland in September of 1939 When German armies invaded Poland, England and France declared war on Germany The Nazi armies crushed Poland in less than 1 month Hitler used German tanks and Stuka dive bombers to invade like lightning, a strategy he called Blitzkrieg or lightning war Although England and France declared war on Germany neither country immediately went to the aid of Poland. This period of the war became known as the Phony War or Sitzkrieg
World Map with the participants in World War II. The Allies depicted in green (those in light green entered after the Attack on Pearl Harbor), the Axis Powers in orange, and neutral countries in grey.participants in World War IIAlliesAttack on Pearl Harbor
Canada Entering the War -Statute of Westminster(1931) gave Canada complete control over its dealings with foreign nations. -One week after Britain declared war, King called Parliament and a declaration of war was passed. -King told the Canadians that Canada would not practice conscription and would send few soldiers, but would help the war effort in the form of food and manufactured goods. -King did not want to divide Canada as in WWI. -Only after the defeat of France (1940) did Canada make a full-scale war effort -By then, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway, and other smaller countries had fallen to the Nazis. -Britain stood alone and was in danger of defeat. -1941, Japan declared war on Britain and the USA -Canadian forces in Hong Kong were attacked and the survivors taken prisoner. -As a result, Canada declared war on Japan. (see Pg. 157, grey box)
Total War By 1940 by using blitzkrieg tactics Germany had defeated Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway and now controlled most of continental Europe When France fell to the Nazis in 1940 Britain stood alone against Germany and was in serious danger of defeat. Canada began a full-scale war effort with the fall of France in 1940, becoming Britain's most powerful ally until 1941 In 1941 Japan declared war on the USA by attacking Pearl Harbour and thus (somewhat predictably) brought the US into the war against the Axis powers Japan also attacks Canadian forces in Hong Kong in 1941 and takes the surviving soldiers as prisoners of war
Battle of Dunkirk BBC - History - World War Two Movies BBC - History - Animated Map: The Fall of France (Dunkirk)
Battle of Britain (1940-1941) -Only Britain remained unconquered - Hitler ordered his air force to attack military targets, and then civilian targets in Britain -The Royal Air Force, along with many Canadian pilots, fought back against all odds until the German air raids ceased. -The Battle of Britain lasted 8 months and cost the lives of 40 553 men, woman and children. -Hitler, after failing to gain air superiority over Britain during the summer months, decided to turn his army East against the U.S.S.R. -It was the first German defeat of the war. BBC - History - World War Two Movies BBC - History - World War Two Movies
The Supermarine Spitfire was the most notorious of the RAFs WWII arsenal. (But the Hurricane was way more important and did a lot more than the spitfire!!)
Footage from German Fighter planes during Battle of Britain.Footage from German Fighter planes during Battle of Britain.
Battle of the Atlantic -During WWII, supplies for England and the Allied forces in Europe were carried by ship across the North Atlantic Ocean. -Thousands of Canadian merchant sailors served on ships carrying food, fuel, weapons, ammunition, and other supplies to English ports. -These sailors faced the constant threat of attack from German submarines. -Thousands more Canadians served on Naval vessels and in aircrafts that were assigned to protect the merchant ships from enemy attack. -In 1940, the German navy launched a campaign of submarine warfare using U-Boat Wolf-packs to cut off Britains oversea lifelines.
Battle of the Atlantic From 1940 on these sailors faced the constant threat of attack from German submarines (known as U-Boats) that traveled in groups (known as wolf-packs) through out the North Atlantic Ocean (particularly that area that air-planes could not defend (Known as the Black Pit.)
Lend-Lease Act The USA passed the Lend-Lease Act, allowing President Roosevelt the power to spend $7 billion to lend or lease military aid to Britain and its allies By 1942 Canadian and American shipyards were able to build merchant ships at faster rate that U- boats were sinking Allied Vessels. Until that point the U-boats were sinking allied vessels faster than the Allies could produce them
Merchant Sailors After the war Canadian merchant sailors were treated as civilian participants and were not given the same benefits as veterans of the army, navy or air force. Examples, they were not eligible for: Pension able benefits Free university education Housing or land-grant benefits No small business financial aid Veterans health care benefits
December 1941, 2000 Canadian Soldiers are sent to hold Hong Kong they are unable to hold Hong Kong in the face of overwhelming odds Hong Kong
U.S. Enters the War U.S. boycotts Japan Japanese attack naval base at Pearl Harbor, HI, Dec. 7, 1941. U.S. declares war on Japan, Germany & Italy declare war on U.S. U.S. and other allies decided to defeat Germany first, then defeat Japan
Dieppe, France -By 1942, the Allies were making plans to retake Europe -To accomplish this, the Allies launched a series of raids across the English Channel -One of these raids was against the French town of Dieppe which was in enemy hands -Canadian troops were given the job of capturing the town The Plan: During the cover of night, Canadian troops were to surprise the enemy from the beach while bombers destroyed the German guns from the air. Problems: -Delays caused the ships to land on the beach during daylight -Delays caused the bombers to be late on the attack. -Soldiers were picked off as they scrambled for cover. -Commanders in the boats could not see what was happening and continued to send reinforcements onto the beach. -Of 4963 Canadians who landed, 2853 were killed or captured -More Canadian soldiers died in those few hours at Dieppe than in any other day of the war.
Several minutes of Combat from World War Two Several minutes of Combat from World War Two
Battle Of Ortona 1943 part of the Italian Campaign BBC - History - Animated Map: The Italian Campaign BBC - History - Animated Map: The Italian Campaign (see Pg. 156) July 11,1943: General Bernard Montgomery standing on a "duck" speaking to Canadian troops, Pachino peninsula, Sicily.
A Canadian tank commander surveys the terrain below him.
D-Day -In June 1944- D-Day the long awaited allied invasion on Europe across the English channel began. -It was code named Operation Overlord, and involved almost 1 million soldiers. -British, American, and Canadian troops stormed ashore along the entire coast of the French province of Normandy. Juno Beach was the Canadian objective -Canadian troops struck at first light, pouring out of their landing craft and advancing across the sand up into the town of Caen. -The allies were back on French soil -D-day marked the beginning of the end for Germany. -Canadians continued to fight for months in order to take back all of the French ports along the English Channel. -They then helped to liberate Belgium and the Netherlands from German control. BBC - History - Animated Map: The D-Day LandingsBBC - History - Animated Map: The D-Day Landings
D-Day, The Beginning of the End of World War Two D-Day, The Beginning of the End of World War Two