An overview of the frugivorous fruit fly diptera- tephritidae fauna in botswana final

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  • Ofentse Sithole

    Department of Biological Sciences

    University of Botswana

    AN OVERVIEW OF THE FRUGIVOROUS FRUIT FLY (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE,

    DACINAE) FAUNA IN BOTSWANA

    THE 3RD INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM OF THE TEPHRITID WORKERS OF EUROPE, AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST (TEAM) IN STELLENBOSCH DURING THE 11-14 APRIL 2016

  • 1. Introduction

    2. Materials and Methods

    3. Results and Discussion

    4. Conclusion

    5. Acknowledgements

    AN OVERVIEW OF THE FRUGIVOROUS FRUIT FLY (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE, DACINAE) FAUNA IN

    BOTSWANA

  • Botswana -latitude 18S and 27S; longitudes 20E and 29E Area= 582, 000 square kilometres GDP= USD 17.22 billion in 2014 Total Population= 2,155,784 Unemployment Rate= 20 % in 2013 Literacy Rate= definition: age 15 and over can read and write, total population: 85.1% male: 84.6% female: 85.6% (2011 est.) Land-locked country (Biosecurity risks): 675 km inland from the Indian Ocean and 1025 km form the Atlantic Ocean

    Map of Botswana

    http://www.indexmundi.com/botswana/demographics_profile.html http://www.tradingeconomics.com/botswana/unemployment-rate www.tradingeconomics.com/botswana/gdp

    http://www.indexmundi.com/botswana/demographics_profile.htmlhttp://www.indexmundi.com/botswana/demographics_profile.htmlhttp://www.tradingeconomics.com/botswana/gdp

  • Imports Exports

    Commodity Quantity(Tons) Value(pula) Quantity(Tons) Value(pula)

    Guavas,

    Mangoes &

    Mangoteens

    1956.663 5,246,727.00 0.08 2,574.00

    Tomatoes 5101.782 24,860,529.00 96.874 399,843.00

    Watermelon 958.183 1,126,968.00 0.524 708.00

    Pawpaws 951.410 1,682,334.00 0.01 119.00

    Bananas 9342.548 35,254,653.00 0.29 2,039.00

    Citrus 480.974 2,462,316.00 0.392 2,926.00

    Peaches,

    nectarines

    629.573 3,613,091.00 0.068 414.00

    Fresh grapes 1110.666 6,111,220.00 0.03 1,430.00

    Table 1.0: Summary of annual Horticultural Produce Imports-Exports for 2010

    Source: Statistics Botswana; International Merchandise Trade Statistics; +267 3934968

  • Botswana Climate Situation

    Dry season- May to October - Winter

    There is little to no rain; humidity is low, typically 20-40%.

    May - The temperatures are relatively cool, typically 10C/50F in

    the morning and 28C/80F in the afternoon.

    June, July & August - Temperature (morning-afternoon) range

    6C/42F to 25C/78F.

    September & October - Temperature : very hot in October

    (38C/100F), but the average temperature remains around

    34C/93F in the afternoon.

    Wet season - November to April - Summer

    November & December - Cooler temperatures and occasional late

    afternoon showers. In December: temperatures between 20C/69F

    in the morning and 33C/91F in the afternoon.

    January & February - These are the wettest months- torrential

    downpours in the afternoon . Daytime temperatures : 32C/90F and

    the humidity is between 50-80%.

    March & April - Rainfall decreases and it steadily cools. The nights

    tend to be cooler but the days are very temperate at 30C/87F.

    http://www.botswanacraft.bw/~mettest/

    Botswana has a predominantly sub-tropical climate

    Influence horticultural production & fruit fly population

  • Farmer benefit constrained by frugivorous fruit flies

    List of symptoms/signs Fruit - internal feeding Fruit - lesions: black or brown Inflorescence - internal feeding Leaves - internal feeding Roots - internal feeding Stems - internal feeding

  • 1. Introduction

    2. Materials and Methods

    3. Results and Discussion

    4. Conclusion

    5. Acknowledgements

    AN OVERVIEW OF THE FRUGIVOROUS FRUIT FLY (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE, DACINAE) FAUNA IN

    BOTSWANA

  • Fruit flies were collected through an Area-Wide Detection Survey of under the technical assistance of United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Government of Botswana during 2009-2010;

    Furthermore, fruit fly collection was done during 2010-2015 in various ecological regions of Botswana, in accordance with the IAEA (2003) guidelines and Protocol

    Fruit fly trapping was done using the following para-pheromone dispensers (plugs and membrane) baited with Dichlorvos in Chempac fruit fly traps :

    Methyl Eugenol (ME) Cue lure Terpinyl Acetate (TA) Trimedlure (TML) Biolure -3 Component lure

  • The southern parts of Botswana are generally cooler whereas the northern parts are hotter The western parts of Botswana have generally extremes of cold and hot conditions

  • All fruit flies were preserved dry or in 70% ethanol. The material was taxonomically identified and shipped to the Royal

    Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium (RMCA) or the University of Pretoria, South Africa for authoritative confirmation

    In addition, information included in this presentation was supplemented with published literature records and older records in entomological collections.

    Some material deposited in the collections of Royal Museum for Central Africa (Belgium), Department of Agricultural Research (Botswana) and University of Pretoria (South Africa)

    The database ca be consulted at http://projects.bebif.be/fruitfly/index.html. http://www.gbif.org/occurrence/search?TAXON_KEY=3520&COUNTRY=BW

  • 1. Introduction

    2. Materials and Methods

    3. Results and Discussion

    4. Conclusion

    5. Acknowledgements

    AN OVERVIEW OF THE FRUGIVOROUS FRUIT FLY (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE, DACINAE) FAUNA IN

    BOTSWANA

  • Table 3.0: Occurrence of fruit flies in the districts of Botswana-Central (CE), Chobe (CH), Francistown (FR), Gaborone (GA), Ghanzi (GH), Kgalagadi (KG), Kgatleng (KL), Kweneng (KW), Lobatse (LO), North

    East (NE), North West (NW), South East (SE)

    Genus Species District of occurrence

    CE CH FR GA GH KG KL KW LO NE NW SE

    Ceratitis

    Subfamily:

    Dacinae

    Tribe: Ceratitidini

    capitata x x x x x x x x x x x

    cosyra X x x x

    rosa x x

    quinaria x x

    Dacus

    Subfamily:

    Dacinae

    Tribe: Dacini

    bivittatus x x

    bistrigulatus x

    ciliatus X x x x

    famona x

    frontalis x x x x x

    kariba x

    rufus x x

    vertebratus X x x x x

    x x

    fuscatus x

    siliqualactis x x

    Bactrocera

    Subfamily:

    Dacinae

    Tribe: Dacini

    dorsalis X x x x x

    Perilampsis

    Subfamily:

    Dacinae

    Tribe: Ceratitidini

    curta

    X

    woodi x

  • Fruit fly occurrence in relation to the land suitability for rainfed crop production

    High fruit fly diversity in Chobe, Central & North West districts-Major horticultural production areas

    Low fruit fly diversity in Kgalagadi, Ghanzi, North East districts-Minor or negligible horticultural production areas

  • 59% 23%

    12%

    6%

    Fruit fly Species Composition Dacus Ceratitis Perilampsis Bactrocera

    Dacus Ceratitis Perilampsis Bactrocera

    Number of species 10 4 2 1

    Percentage (%) 59 23 12 6

    A total of 17 fruit fly species occur in different districts of Botswana

    All belong to the Dacinae subfamily

    16 species native to Afrotropical region

    First record of the exotic Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel, 1912) in 2009

  • Global Origin of the major Tephritid Genera found in Botswana

    Ceratitis (Afrotropical); Dacus (Majority Afrotropical-some

    Saharo-Arabian and Oriental); Bactrocera (All but 10 Oriental-

    some Sino-Japanese Drew (2004) ), Bishop Mus. Bull. Entomol.

    12: 165-178} ; Map-Courtesy: Holt, et al. (2014), Science 339, 74.

  • Notes on the economic importance of the

    Dacinae fruit flies

    Fruit fly species Host preference

    Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824),

    Ceratitis rosa Karsch, 1887, Bactrocera

    dorsalis (Hendel, 1912), Dacus ciliatus Loew,

    1862, Ceratitis rosa Karsch, 1887

    Polyphagous (numerous hosts)

    Ceratitis cosyra (Walker, 1849), Ceratitis

    quinaria (Bezzi, 1918), Ceratitis rosa Karsch,

    1887, Dacus siliqualactis Munro, 1939

    Anacardiaceae-feeders (mango family)

    Ceratitis quinaria (Bezzi, 1918), Ceratitis

    cosyra (Walker, 1849), Ceratitis rosa Karsch,

    1887

    Rutaceae-feeders (citrus family)

    Ceratitis rosa Karsch, 1887 Solanaceae-feeders (tomato family)

    Dacus frontalis Becker, 1922, Dacus bivittatus

    (Bigot, 1858), Dacus vertebratus Bezzi, 1908,

    Dacus ciliatus Loew, 1862

    Cucurbitaceae-feeders (cucurbits family)

    Ceratitis cosyra (Walker, 1849), Ceratitis rosa

    Karsch, 1887

    Mytaceae-feeders (guava family)

  • Notes on the economic importance of the Dacinae fruit flies

    Genus Perilampsis Bezzi 1920

    Larvae infest the family, Loranthaceae , which contains several species of parasitic plants-Pupation occurs inside the fruit (the Perilampsis are not of economic importance). Loranthaceae is a serious pest of mango in India.

    1. Perilampsis curta Munro, 1938-Occurs also in Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania. Attracted to methyl eugenol in Ditladi. Occurs in Central district

    2. Perilampsis woodi (Bezzi, 1924)-Occurs in Angola, Ivory Coast, Malawi, Nigeria, Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe. Attracted to cue-lure in Ditladi. Occurs in Central district

  • Notes on the economic importance of

    Bactrocera dorsalis Districts in which B. dorsalis occur

    First recorded in Chobe district (Kasane)

    in August 2009 (Possibly spread from

    Zambia-in July 2009 B. dorsalis occurred

    in southern Zambia)

    Also occurs in South East (Tlokweng

    Border) and Lobatse (Pioneer border),

    (60 km from Zeerust town of South

    Africa, the North West Province) districts

    -probably spread from North West-ZA,

    where it was reported in January 2013

    Central (Tuli Block areas, including

    Martins Drift Border)-Adjacent to

    Limpopo Province of South Africa, where

    B. dorsalis was first detected in May

    2010 and July 2010 in Groblersbrug

    North East (Ramokgwebana border)

    district near Zimbabwe border of

    Plumtree.-Possibly spread from

    Zimbabwe, where B. dorsalis was

    reported in April 2013

    Genus Bactrocera Macquart, 1835

    Highly polyphagous, destructive

    horticultural pests

    of global significance

    1. Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel, 1912)

    Formerly known as Bactrocera invadens

    Drew Tsuruta & White,2003-Attacking over

    40 fruit species and recorded from more than

    30 African countries

    Commercial hosts include Mango, citrus,

    banana, tomato

    Known wild hosts include Monkey orange

    (Mogorogorwane), Strychnos

    cocculoides; Morula, Sclerocarya birrea

    Male attracted to methyl eugenol

    https://www.ippc.int/en/countries/

    I want to write about the economic importance of these fruit flies,

    but there is no published data for Botswana host plants-advice?

  • 1. Introduction

    2. Materials and Methods

    3. Results and Discussion

    4. Conclusion

    5. Acknowledgements

    AN OVERVIEW OF THE FRUGIVOROUS FRUIT FLY (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE, DACINAE) FAUNA IN

    BOTSWANA

  • Conclusion The Dacine fruit flies occurring in Botswana are summarized in Table 3.0.

    With Seventeen confirmed species (including a record of Bactrocera

    dorsalis, which is now established)

    Ceratitis capitata is widespread across the country, possibly due high

    adaptability to varying climatic conditions and polyphagy

    Ceratitis rosa is confined to the south eastern district, possibly due to cooler

    climatic conditions

    The Dacini fauna of Botswana exhibits a rather limited diversity

    Fifteen of the species are of economic importance whereas two

    (Perilampsis curta and Perilampsis woodi) are not of economic importance

    Most representatives are taxa that are widespread throughout the

    Afrotropical Region, including the exotic Bactrocera dorsalis which is of

    Asian origin

    Fruit fly composition is likely to be lower than the actual number of

    Tephritids in Botswana

    Future extensive survey and rearing of fruit flies is necessary for a complete

    faunal diversity and host fruit data to be availed

  • 1. Introduction

    2. Materials and Methods

    3. Results and Discussion

    4. Conclusion

    5. Acknowledgements

    AN OVERVIEW OF THE FRUGIVOROUS FRUIT FLY (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE, DACINAE) FAUNA IN

    BOTSWANA

  • Acknowledgements

    Marc De Meyer Ian White Mervyn Mansell Sunday Ekesi Marks Ditlhogo Stephan Coetzee

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