Bengal tiger

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<p>Slide 1</p> <p>Wildlife Assignment</p> <p>+923026243208</p> <p>M.Mubashar AliBs Zoology6th SemesterRoll# 1</p> <p>Bengal tiger</p> <p> CONTENTS </p> <p>Bengal tigerScientific classificationInteresting InformationDistribution and habitat India Bangladesh Nepal BhutanEcology and behaviorHunting and dietReproduction and lifecycle</p> <p>Bengal Tiger Current StatusThreats THE LOSS OF HABITAT FOR TIGERS Population Competition Poaching Human-tiger conflictTiger conservation In India In Bangladesh In Nepal Ex situ</p> <p> INTRODUCTIONThe Bengaltiger(Panthera tigris) is the largestspecies.It is also called The Royal Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris), the national animal of India.The Bengal tiger's coat is yellow to light orange, with stripes ranging from dark brown to black.The tail is orange with black rings.It has exceptionally teeth withcanines are the longest among living felidsIn zoos, tigers have lived for 20 to 26 years, which also seems to be their longevity in the wild.</p> <p>They are territorial and generallysolitary but social animals, often requiring large areas of habitat that support their prey requirements.</p> <p>Figure : Bangal tiger</p> <p>Male Bengal tigers have an average total length of 270to310cm (110to120in) including the tail, while females measure 240to265cm (94to104in) on average.The average weight of males is 221.2kg , while that of females is 139.7kg .The Royal Bengal Tiger of India is justifiably called the 'King of the Jungle because it is is a super predator and important member of the carnivores that once roamed and dominated all of South East Asia.Tigers lead solitary lives, and the courtship period, and association between mother and cub is their only interaction and association.</p> <p>Tigers are entirely different in their hunting habits from lions, and hence they are mutually exclusive in their distribution. Tigers rest during the day in the shade, and begin to hunt for food at dusk.The Bengal Tiger is also known for its mutations, producing the gorgeous White Tigers that are kept in captivity around the world. These are white with grey or brown stripes.A far less commonly known mutation of the Bengal is the Black Tiger, this tigers fur is a very dark charcoal or black in colour with light yellow or white stripes.</p> <p>Figure: white mutant tiger</p> <p> Scientific classification</p> <p>Kingdom AnimaliaPhylum ChordataClass MammaliaOrder CarnivoraFamily FelidaeBinomial name Panthera tigrisCommon name Bengal tiger</p> <p> Interesting Information</p> <p>White tigers are not a separate species, but the result of genetic mutation..The Bengal tiger often walks backward into water to keep a watchful eye on its surroundings.Can kill a buffalo weighing nearly four times its own weight.Most water-loving,It will even chase prey into the water.</p> <p>The roar of a Bengal Tiger can be heard 2 miles away.Bengal Tigers Purr .Domestic cats purr when breathing in as well as out, Tigers purr only when breathing out.Tigers, unlike many other cats, often eat meat that has begun to putrefy.A Tiger is a voracious eater. It can kill the equivalent of 30 buffalos a year, and eat 65 pounds of meat in a night.</p> <p> Distribution and habitat</p> <p>Tigers appear to have arrived in Sri Lanka about 20,000 years ago.In 1929, the British taxonomistPocock assumed that tigers arrived in southern India too late to colonizeSri Lanka, which earlier had been connected to India by aland bridge. Tigers inhabittropical moistevergreen forests ,tropical dry forests , tropical and subtropical moistforests, mangroves, subtropical and temperate upland forests, and alluvial grasslands(a)India</p> <p>Good tiger habitats in subtropical and temperate upland forests include theTiger Conservation Units(TCUs)Manas-Namdapha. TCUs in tropical dry forest includeHazaribagh National Park,Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve,Kanha-Indravati corridor,Orissa dry forests,Panna National Park,Melghat Tiger ReserveandRatapani Tiger Reserve.The TCUs in tropical moist deciduous forest are probably some of the most productive habitats for tigers and their prey, and includeKaziranga-Meghalaya,Kanha-Pench,SimlipalandIndravati Tiger Reserves. </p> <p>The total tiger population has been estimated at 1,411 individuals ranging from 1,165 to 1,657 adult and sub-adult tigers of more than 1.5 years of age. in theShivaliksGangetic flood plainlandscape there are six populations with an estimated population size of 259 to 335 individuals occupying 5,080 square kilometers (1,960sqmi) of forested habitats, which are located in Rajaji and Corbett national parks.in theCentral Indianhighlands there are 17 populations with an estimated population size of 437 to 661 individuals occupying 48,610 square kilometres of forested habitats, which are located in the landscapes of Kanha-Pench,Sanjay-Palamau.</p> <p>In theEastern Ghats landscape there is a single population with an estimated population size of 49 to 57 individuals occupying 7,772 square kilometers located in theSrivenkateshwara National Park.In theWestern Ghats landscape there are seven populations with an estimated population size of 336 to 487 individuals occupying 21,435 square kilometres .In theBrahmaputra flood plains and north-eastern hills tigers occupy 4,230 square kilometres (1,630sqmi) in several patchy and fragmented forests;In the IndianSundarbans tigers occupy about 1,586 square kilometres (612sqmi) of mangrove forest.</p> <p> (b)BangladeshTigers in Bangladesh are now relegated to the forests of theSundarbans and theChittagong Hill Tracts .As of 2004, population estimates in Bangladesh ranged from 200 to 419, mostly in the Sunderbans.From October 2005 to January 2007, the firstcamera-trap survey was conducted across six sites in the Bangladesh Sundarbans to estimate tiger population density. The average of these six sites provided an estimate of 3.7 tigers per 100km2.The Bangladesh Sundarbans is an area of 5,770km2(2,230sqmi) it was inferred that the total tiger population comprised approximately 200 individuals. </p> <p> (c)NepalThe largest population lives inChitwan National Park.As of 2009, an estimated 121 breeding tigers lived in Nepal.By 2010, the number of adult tigers had reached 155.Between February and June 2013, a camera trapping survey was carried out in the Terai covering an area of 4,841km2(1,869sqmi) tiger habitat. The countrys tiger population was estimated at 163253 breeding adults comprising about 127 tigers in the Chitwan-Parsa protected areas.</p> <p> (d)Bhutan</p> <p>As of 2005, the population in Bhutan is estimated at 6781 individuals.Tigers occur from an altitude of 200m (660ft) in the subtropicalHimalayan foothills in the south along the border with India to over 3,000m (9,800ft) in the temperate forests in the north, and are known from 17 of 18districts. Ecology and behavior</p> <p>The basic social unit of the tiger is the elemental one of mother and offspring.Adult animals congregate only on transitory basis when special conditions permit, such as plentiful supply of food. Otherwise they lead solitary lives, hunting individually for the dispersed forest and tall grassland animalsThey establish and maintain home ranges. Resident adults of either sex tend to confine their movements to a definite area of habitat.Male tiger home range is about 200km2 in summer and 110km2 in winterIncluded in his home range were the much smaller home ranges of two females, a tigress with cubs and a sub-adult tigress. They occupied home ranges of 16to31km2.A male tiger keeps a large territory in order to include the home ranges of several females within its bounds, so that he may maintainmatingrights with them.</p> <p> Hunting and diet</p> <p>Tigers arecarnivores . They prefer hunting such aschital ,deer ,gaur , and to a lesser extent alsobarasingha,water buffalo,nilgai,serowandtake in.Among the medium-sized prey species they frequently killwild boar, and occasionallyhog deer,muntjac andGray langur.Small prey species such asporcupines,hares andpeafowl form a very small part in their diet.They also prey on domestic livestock.Tigers approach their victim from the side or behind from as close a distance as possible and grasp the prey's throat to kill it.The nature of the tiger's hunting method and prey availability results in a "feast or famine" .Feeding style often consume 1840 kilograms of meat at one time.Bengal tigers have been known to take other predators, such asleopards,wolves,jackals,foxes,crocodiles.Adultelephantsandrhinocerosesare too large to be successfully tackled by tigers. Reproduction and lifecycle</p> <p>The tiger in India has no definite mating and birth seasons.Most young are born in December and April.Young have also been found in March, May, October and November .Males reach maturity at 45 years of age, and females at 34 years.A tigress comes into heat at intervals of about 39 weeks, and is receptive for 36 days.After a gestation period of 104106 days, 14 cubs are born in a shelter situated in tall grass, thick bush or in caves.Newborn cubs weigh 780to1,600g and they have a thick wooly fur that is shed after 3.55 months. Their eyes and ears are closed. Their milk teeth start to erupt at about 23 weeks after birth, and are slowly replaced by permanent dentition from 8.59.5 weeks of age onwards. They suckle for 36 months, and begin to eat small amounts of solid food at about 2 months of age. At this time, they follow their mother on her hunting expeditions and begin to take part in hunting at 56 months of age. At the age of 23 years, they slowly start to separate from the family group Bengal Tiger Current Status</p> <p>Bengal tiger is found mainly in the Indian subcontinent, occupying the Bengal region. A small proportion of the total population is also seen occupying southern Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Tibet and western Myanmar.the status of the Indian Bengal tiger in 1995 was estimated to be around 3,250 to 4,700, throughout the Asian continent.'Project Tiger' was undertaken, in order to improve the dismal situation. In the year 1989 by the officials of Project Tiger and Wildlife Institute of India, It revealed that the number of tigers had increased to approximately 4,334.As per the present status of the Indian Bengal Tiger, the population of the species is around 3,000 to 3,500.</p> <p> Threats</p> <p>Over the past century tiger numbers have fallen dramatically, with a decreasing population trend.None of theTiger Conservation Landscapeswithin the Bengal tiger range is large enough to support an effective population size of 250 individuals. Habitat losses and the extremely large-scale incidences of huntingare serious threats to the species' survival. Following are the factor which reduce tiger population.</p> <p> (a) THE LOSS OF HABITAT FOR TIGERS</p> <p>In order to live in the wild, tigers need water to drink, animals to hunt, and vegetation in which to hide.As the mountains, jungles, forests, and long grasses that have long been home to tigers disappear.</p> <p>Agricultural expansion, timber cutting, new roads, human settlement, industrial expansion and hydroelectric dams push tigers into smaller and smaller areas of land. These forest fragments are surrounded by rapidly growing and relatively poor human populations, including increasing numbers of illegal hunters. Without wilderness, the wild tiger will not survive.</p> <p> (b)Population</p> <p>Asia's explosive population growth demands that more and more land be converted to agriculture.In India, where about 60 per cent of the world's wild tigers still roam, the human population has grown by 50 percent in the past 20 years.Destroy forest that inhabit by tigers. (C)Competition</p> <p>As tigers compete with humans and industry for land, they find less and less to eat.Local people hunt the same prey as tigers do, pressing tigers to resort to domestic animals and, on rarer occasions, even humans.Threatened villagers often poison, shoot, or snare the encroaching tigers (d)Poaching</p> <p>The most significant immediate threat to the existence of wild tiger populations is theillegal tradeinpoached skins and body partsbetween India, Nepal andChina .Buyers choose the skins from dealers or tanneries and smuggle them through a complex interlinking network to markets outside India, mainly in China.Their skins and body parts may however become a part of the illegal trade.The demand for bones and body parts from wild tigers for use inTraditional Chinese medicine is the reason for the unrelenting poaching pressure on tigers on the Indian subcontinent (e)Human-tiger conflict</p> <p>The region affording habitat where tigers have achieved their highest densities is also one which has housed one of the most concentrated and rapidly expanding human populations.At the beginning of the 19th century tigers were so numerous it seemed to be a question as to whether man or tiger would survive.. It became the official policy to encourage the killing of tigers as rapidly as possible, rewards being paid for their destruction in many localities.In theSundarbans, 10 out of 13 man-eaters tiger recorded in the 1970s were males.Tigers in the Sunderbans presumably attacked humans who entered their territories in search of wood, honey or fish, thus causing them to defend their territories.In December 2012, a tiger was shot by theKerala Forest Department on acoffee plantation on the fringes of theWayanad Wildlife Sanctuary. Chief Wildlife Warden of Kerala ordered the hunt for the animal after mass protests erupted as the tiger had been carrying away livestock. Tiger conservation An area of special interest lies in Landscapein theHimalayan foothills of northern India and southern Nepal, where 11protected areas comprising dry forest foothills and tall-grass savannas harbor tigers in a 49,000 square kilometres landscape. The approach has been successful in reducing poaching, restoring habitats, and creating a local constituency for conservation.WWF form a global campaign,Save Tigers Now, with the goal of building political, financial and public support to double the wild tiger population by 2022.Save Tigers Nowstarted its campaign in 12 different WWF Tiger priority landscapes, since May 2010.</p> <p> (a)In India</p> <p>Main article:Project TigerIn 1972,Project Tigerwas launched aiming at ensuring a viable population of tigers in the country and preserving areas of biological importance .The selection of areas for the reserves represented as close as possible the diversity ofecosystemsacross the tiger's distributi...</p>

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