Editing techniques (robbie h.) part 1

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<p>PowerPoint Presentation</p> <p>Film and Video Editing TechniquesROBBIE HICKMAN</p> <p>+</p> <p>Pioneers of film making in the late 19th Century and early 20th CenturyGeorges Melies (8 December 1861 21 January 1938) A Trip to the Moon, 1902Georges Melies was a French filmmaker and illusionist who was famous for leading various technical and narrative developments during the earliest days of cinema. He is a pioneer because he made a massive contribution to cinema. He was referred to the first cinemagician due to his unique abilities to manipulate and transform reality through use of cinematography. His films involved strange and surreal journeys; as clearly shown in A Trip to the Moon (French: Le Voyage dans de lune, 1902) with its iconic rocket in the eye moment which Melies is famous for. The silent film follows a group of astronomers who use a cannon-propelled capsule to travel to the Moon, explore its surface and escape from lunar inhabitants, after which they return to Earth with one of the captive Inhabitants. The film was an international success upon its release on 1st September 1902 in France. It was pirated extensively by other studios i.e. other creations included elements from A Trip to the Moon which were transformed and modified without the permission of the original owner nor the bearing of the authors personality. Melies was clearly influential as he made films which became examples of the earliest experimentation of plot, action, close-ups and dissolves. A Trip to the Moon is a good example of this because its running time was unusually high, its emphasis on storytelling influenced other filmmakers and its special effects were innovative in a time period where movies were just beginning to become a popular attraction. Melies was also pioneer of special effects; his experiments on film were the likely result of a discovery he made (although it was unintentional) about an occurrence within the footage of a short film he was making in Paris; the cameras feed had become distorted and the figures popped in and out of the frame or disappeared from the frame altogether. Due to this fault which likely occurred due to lack of technology at the time, a new avenue of creative potential was opened up for early cinema. The way films were made would change forever thanks to this discovery. Melies years of experimentation also allowed him to develop: the first split screen (Un homme de tete, 1898) the first double exposure (La caverne Maudite, 1898) the first image dissolve (Cendrillon, 1899) Georges Melies also incorporated traditional theatrical elements into motion pictures, thus allowing him to create spectacles which would have been deemed impossible to create at a time where digital methods utilized to create films today did not even exist. There are two examples of how Melies experimented which early cinema; first of all, he explored Editing in camera which involved filming in sequence and then proceeding to atop and start filming. The primary characteristic of this technique was to capture only what the individual desired in a scene. This refers to the nature of early cinema; people clearly did not communicate their ideas through use of techniques at the time, which is why Melies was considered influential as he began to experiment on new techniques. He also explored Surreal Editing which refers to the ability to create illusions through movement and imagery (the imagery will have been absurd) of characters appearing to fly, appear and disappear etc. This technique was employed with the primary motive of challenging the traditional aim of art, which was to represent reality. For example, A Trip to the Moon was clearly surreal as it featured sequences that seemed impossible to accomplish in real life; the film was fictional and this was unusual for films at the time. However, surreal editing consisted only of simple special effects which were somewhat easy to achieve. </p> <p>+</p> <p>Why were they pioneers? 2</p> <p>Pioneers of film making in the late 19th Century and early 20th Century Edwin S. Porter (April 21, 1870 April 30, 1941) The Great Train Robbery (1903) Edwin S. Porter was an American film pioneer, famous for his roles as a producer, director, studio manager and cinematographer. He created 250 films, but the most important ones included Jack and the Beanstalk (1902), Life of an American Fireman (1903) and The Great Train Robbery (1903). He remains an enigmatic individual in motion picture history and his role and significance as director of innovative early films is irrefutable. Porter initially joined the Vitascope Marketing Company in 1895 where he utilized his engineering skills, before retiring to become a projectionist working freelance in 1898. This new job consisted mainly of Porter duplicating Melies films, which was illegal. He took apart one act camera reels and attempt to combine several of these into a 15 minute long programme. Porter also attempted to construct his own camera, however these efforts were in vain. He eventually returned to Edisons Company, this time as a producer and director rather than in an engineering capacity. Porter was a fan of Georges Melies films; he attempted to emulate the trick photography Melies had employed and proved successful in his films, particularly in A Trip to the Moon by the latter.Whilst making his own films (including Jack and the Beanstalk), Porter became one of the first directors to shoot at night time. His skills with editing and various methods of projection resulted in great effect within some of his films in which he combined documentary footage with footage of his own, hence the documentary style of filmmaking he adopted over the years. For example, Life of an American Fireman combined dramatized scenes shot by Porter himself with stock footage of fires, firemen and fire engines etc., to create an effective whole. The overall film was described as truly dramatic in a contemporary setting; this proves that the incorporation of existing footage with scenes filmed by oneself will result in an experience in which the viewers can strongly relate the elements of the film to real life, therefore it is more believable. This is a strong example of juxtaposition, in which two different things are placed fairly close together to provide a contrasting effect. Life of an American Fireman is a good example of how plot, action, close-ups and dissolves were focused on in motion picture films at the time. The fact that Porter attempted to emulate the surreal nature of the photography employed by Georges Melies proves that the latter individual inspired him to a great extent; there is a chance that Porter might have come a pioneer mostly in part due to the work of Melies. This also proves that Melies was extremely influential as a pioneer as he inspired others. During the course of the 1900s decade, Porter became the most influential filmmaker in the United States, mostly because of his discoveries of multiple ways to tell stories in films, and therefore communicate intended messages. In that time period (1900s decade), films were just beginning to become popular and the works of Porter were very unusual and unique at the same time. Porter was also a pioneer because he was the first to explore certain types of editing techniques in his films which would change the way they look. He pioneered ways to make movies more dramatic by adding tension and release; he combined existing footage with certain aspects of his own films. The Great Train Robbery (1903) is considered a milestone in filmmaking as it utilized multiple unconventional techniques including composite editing, on-location shooting, and frequent camera movement. The film is one of the earliest to utilize cross cutting, in which two scenes from different locations are shown to suggest that they are occurring simultaneously. This is another reason why Porter was a pioneer because his film was actually considered the first Western film with a recognizable form. The film is also said to be culturally, historically, and aesthetically significant. The editing techniques Porter explored are: Workbench cutting: where physical film is cut/spliced and stuck back together in a the desired order. It was utilized long before digital technology with reels of film. Continuity Editing: attempting to create a coherent transition between shots i.e. ensuring they make sense. </p> <p>+</p> <p>Pioneers of film making in the late 19th Century and early 20th CenturyThe Lumiere Brothers (Auguste Marie Louis Nicholas [19 October 1862 10 April 1954] and Louis Jean [5 October 1854 6 June 1948]The Lumiere Bros. were the first filmmakers in history. They patented the cinematograph which allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple parties, as opposed to Thomas Edisons kinetoscope. The Lumiere Bros. actually pioneered the advent of a film medium; their first film, Sortie de luisine de Lyon (1895) is considered the first true motion picture in history. The Lumiere Bros. along with Thomas Edison (who invented the phonograph and the motion picture camera) were pioneers because they first came up with the essential aspects of the production of a motion picture. Auguste and Louis Lumiere also directed and produced LArrivee dun train en gare de La Ciotat (Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat) which, hence its name, was simply about a train arriving a station. The action taking place (which consisted of the train arriving, the doors opening, and people boarding the train) was shown in a single take static long shot. Sortie de luisine de Lyon (Workers leaving the Lumiere Factory) which was also made by the Lumiere Brothers, is referred to as the first real motion picture. Within both films, the camera remained static and the flow of action went uninterrupted. The cinematograph, developed in 1894, was patented by the Lumiere Boris at a time where photography was becoming more accessible than ever. The term cinematograph was coined by Leon Bouly who was unable to hold the patent. The Lumiere Brothers introduced large audiences to the motion picture, and went on to create the first films in cinema history. Compared to Georges Melies and Edwin S. Porter, who came up with surreal editing and cross cutting respectively i.e. they experimented with early cinema to ensure films could tell stories and please audiences, the Lumiere Brothers seem far more important, mostly due to the fact that they kick started motion picture history and it can be concluded that without the work of the Lumiere Brothers, Melies, Porter and many individuals who explored the capacities of cinema wouldnt be pioneers at all, and in addition to this, motion picture may not have even existed. This proves that the Lumiere Brothers must have been the most influential figures in motion picture history. </p> <p>+</p> <p>Characteristics of early film productionThe characteristics of early cinema would have been significantly different in comparison to the way films are in this current decade. Back in the early 20th Century, when films were just starting to become popular, there was a lack of technology which will have otherwise allowed for longer films with a great deal of shots. The earliest films in motion picture history tended to be brief, usually lasting no longer than one minute in length. Audiences seemed to respond to moving images projected before them; for example these would have ranged from the simple observation of everyday actions (Workers Leaving the Lumiere Factory) to focus on large scale events (A Train Arriving at a Station) within the frame. The use of long shot seemed very prominent in early films; this will have enabled the aspects of a location within a film to be visible to the audience. A good example of this is during Arrival of a Train at a Station which, like many other films at the time, was filmed in a single, long shot. The repetitive use of this shot could imply that there wasnt a great deal of knowledge about the different types of shots and what they each represent e.g. close-up and medium shots. The same thing can be said in regard to other films at the time which basically depicted the aspects of everyday life for many people, whether it be eating food or driving/getting transport somewhere. Most films were very short, portraying events in a single-take, static locked shot, which is evident in Workers Leaving the Lumiere Factory. This was the direct result of filmmakers, who at the time will have been reluctant to splice different shots (especially from multiple locations) together. There could have been concerns that attempting these actions might damage or destroy the footage (which at the time was made up of reels rather than recorded digitally) and even confuse audiences. It became obvious that audiences would prefer films which offered an entirely different experience compared to films which had no story or editing. This is possibly the reason why individuals decided to adopt new styles and techniques that would forever change the way films are made, and it was the Lumiere Brothers who screened films to an audience for the first time. Before such techniques were employed, films did not have a story. They didnt have dialogue or even any sound and there were no editing techniques. This implies that the production process of the earliest films would have been short; possibly consisting solely of finding a suitable location and taking a single shot with a camera. Cameras also did not film in colour, therefore all films at the time were in black-and-white. The pacing in the earliest films was quite fast. A good example of this is during the course of Workers Leaving the Lumiere Factory. The motion within the frame made the aspects of the film e.g. people walking and carts being pulled by horses look as if they were moving at quick speeds. This makes the action taking place within the film appear quite rushed. Other short films e.g. Arrival of a Train at a Station also seem to share the same pace. This could prove that filmmakers did not have the means of altering the footage they obtained in any way e.g. editing it. The films created by the Lumiere Brothers do not look as if they were edited in any way. Based on all of this, it is obvious that the process of production for films was not like the way it is today, in which case a large number of people are responsible for planning, production, post-production, and distribution of films. Back in the early 20th century, things will have been far more complicated. </p> <p>+</p> <p>e.g. types of shots, framing, pacing. 5</p> <p>What effect did these characteristics of early film have on the production of films?The Great Train Robbery (Edwin S. Porter): The characteristics of early film production had an effect on how The Great Train Robbery will have turned out after production was completed. For example, the constant and repetitive use of long-shot; which was in fact the only type of shot used in every scene in...</p>