Global OER Movement & CC: CC Summit

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Increasing College Access and Success Through Zero-Textbook-Cost Degrees

Dr. Cable GreenDirector of Global Learning

cable@creativecommons.orgtwitter: @cgreen

Global Open Educational Resources (OER) Movement


Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under:

Big remix with special thanks to:David WileyAlek CC PolandKelsey CC SACreative Commons Affiliates around the worldNicole AllenJohn HiltonDave ErnstDavid HarrisTJ BlissCC staffand more

Slides, notes, references:

Open Educational ResourcesAny kind of teaching materials textbooks, syllabi, lesson plans, videos, readings, exams


Open Educational Resources(1) Free and unfettered access, and(2) Free copyright permissions to engage in the 5R activities

We seek to create a world in which the public has free, legal and unfettered access to quality education and research resources, and learning opportunities where global challenges are the curriculum.

We live in an age of information abundance where everyone, for the first time in human history, can attain all the education they desire. The key to this sea change in learning is OER. OER are educational materials produced by one party that are either licensed under an open license or are in the public domain making the resources both free and providing the legal rights to anyone to reuse, revise, remix, redistribute and retain (a copy of) the educational resources.5

open free


free is assumed online

HandwritingPrinting PressInternetCopying a book$1000s per copy$1s per copy$0.0001s per copyDistributing a book$1000s per copy$1s per copy$0.0001s per copy


open > free


open = free + permissions


The 5Rs


retain is fundamental

retain is prerequisite

to revise and remix

watch out for new publisher artificial scarcity models

Cost to StudentsPermissions to Faculty and StudentsCommercial TextbooksExpensiveRestrictiveLibrary ResourcesFreeRestrictiveOpen Educational ResourcesFree5Rs

Faux-pen (aka open washing)1. Free (possibly gated) access

2. All rights reserved (or stronger)


Because we can share high quality education materials with the world for near zero cost, we should. As educators, we have a moral and ethical obligation to do so. After all, education is fundamentally about sharing knowledge and ideas.

most freedomleast freedomNot OEROER



Creative Commons puts the open in OER

Whats happening around the world?

A lot and I cant come close to listing all of the excellent OER projects in 20 min.

Lets talk about the trends


Global OER Strategic Discussions

join us: Friday, 16 Oct: 11:00

OER: Mainstreaming and the Moonshot

The Global OER Graduate network isa global network of PhD studentsinvolved in projects, policy development and implementation strategies on open educational resources (OER).

At the core of the network are doctoral students whose research projects include a focus on openness in education through, for example, OER, MOOC, open data, open licensing and open access publishing. 21

Primary & Secondary (K-12) OER

CC NZ is working with school Boards of Trustees of primary and secondary schools to give teachers permission to CC license works owned by the schools (work for hire).

Leicester City Council / CC BY 4.0

Leicester City Council is the first local government authority in the United Kingdom (UK) to provide 84 community schools with blanket permission to openly license their educational resources.

The council is recommending that school staff use the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license to share materials created in the course of their work. 24

With the free primer textbook, the Ministry wants to address the issue of rising textbook prices (average textbook expenditures by families have risen by almost 50% percent since 2007) as well as end a range of unfair practices by publishers (that forced, for example, parents to purchase new textbooks each year by bundling them into a single volume with exercise books).

The Ministry estimates that parents will save 100 million Zoty (approximately 25m Euro) on textbook expenses in the first year, and up to 700 million zoty (approximately 168m Euro) in 2020. The costs of the free textbooks will be covered from budget funds previously reserved for subsidies to textbook purchases for poor families.

The Ministry will also subsidise, along the free primer textbook, a range of supplementary materials, including exercise books and a foreign language textbook. In following years, the program will be extended so that it will cover grades from 1 to 9. The program will also be integrated with open e-textbooks from the Digital school program. 25

Open / OER Business Models

Lumen Learning

$Cut total spend on textbooks by 90%

Measurable increase (5-10%) in student success

Open licensingof all new content

Data-driven course updates

Smooth faculty transition to open content

Student access to materials from day 1


Building an open source business by Libby Levi CC BY-SA

CC Open Business Models initiative: aimsto show how Creative Commons licenses can be used to create financially sustainable organizations.

Developed in response to a question frequently asked of Creative Commons: How do I earn a living, pay the bills, and keep the lights on if I openly license my work and give it away for free?

Talk with Sarah Hinchliff Pearson and Paul Stacey (raise their hands).29

Open Pedagogy / Praxis / Practices

Open content is / should be low hanging fruit.

More important is exploring how learning can be improved with OER.

When the content and pedagogies are open in learning spaces, beneficial changes happen, both for students and teachers. Students can contribute to improving the curriculum, work on complex and authentic problems, and have their work be used in the field. Since this work is more meaningful and the stakes are higher, students work harder and learn more. Teachers and professors can reuse others OER, share their work, and form communities around programs of study.30

what does open allow me to do?

Faculty / teachers have expanded academic freedom with open resources


Disposable AssignmentsStudents hate doing themTeachers hate grading themHuge waste of time and energy


Renewable AssignmentsStudents see value in doing themTeachers see value in grading themThe world is a better place at the end


Open Licensing Policy onEducational Resources

Why should taxpayers be required to pay twice for their educational materials?

OER is sustainable, simply by mandating an open license for resources produced by educators funded by taxpayer dollars.

Publicly funded resources should be open licensed by default.

Foundations too.34

Institute for Open Leadership

Apply @

$2 billion: new academic programs @ 700+ Community CollegesCreative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) required


Creative Commons believes that public and foundation funded resources should be openly licensed by default.

To support the education of government staff creating, adopting and implementing open licensing policies weve createdanOpen Licensing Policy Toolkit. While this draft is tailored for U.S. government federal staff, it can easily be revised to meet the needs of any country. We share it here under a CC BY 4.0 license hoping others will take, improve, and modify it to meet regional, national and/or local needs. 39

Focus on Open Textbooks in US

We believe OER will replace much of the expensive, proprietary content used in academic courses, starting with content in highest enrolled courses. Shifting to this model will generate more equitable economic opportunities globally and social benefits without sacrificing quality of educational content.40

OER Potential in U.S. Higher Education:Save Students: Billions / yearIf every:

Open textbook saves $128 per course / student

Based on the National Center for Education Statisticsmost recent enrollment records, there are more than11 million full-time undergraduates at institutions ofhigher education. With the availability of more than 160open textbooks right now, we stipulate that everyundergraduate takes at least ONE course for whichthere is an open textbook available, each year. Fromthis stipulation, we can estimate that if every studenthad just one of their traditional textbooks replaced withOER or an open textbook, it would save students in thiscountry more than $1 billion dollars annually.

This is also a conservative estimate. This savings figuredoes not include the fact that most students take two semesters of schooling per year (which would double the estimates of savings), or the factthat the average full-time student ta