Modern Architecture - Lecture 1

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Modern Architecture

Text of Modern Architecture - Lecture 1

  • Jordan University of Science and Technology College of Architecture and Design / Department of Architecture Arch. 331 Modern Architecture Instructor: Dr. Raed Al Tal Summer 2012 The Triumph of the Iron Masters: the Search for a Style
  • The Drama of Shapes and Space Baroque and Rococo
  • Signs of Authority Chateau de Versailles It took some 30,000 workers and soldiers to complete the structure according to the Kings (Louis XIV) extravagant tastes that symbolized wealth and power, and this ultimately was financially devastating for the kingdom. An excellent example of picturesque landscape
  • Two Revolutions that have shaped the Modern architecture were : French Revolution 1789 ( Social struggle, human rights) Industrial Revolution 1750-1850 ( Technology, urban growth ) Technology + Ideology/ Philosophy Modern Architecture Revolutionary movements Communalism versus Industrialism ( Imperial Capitalism)
  • The French Revolution (17891799) was a period of political and social upheaval and radical change in the history of France, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on Enlightenment principles of citizenship and inalienable rights. The storming of the Bastille, 14 July 1789
  • Behind The Rose of Versailles Marie Antoinette on the Gullotine, October 16, 1793 ( wife of Louis XVI)
  • The French Revolution (17891799) had such a huge impact on France and West Europe for a long time that the intellectual , philosophical and political life of France was changed Led to the birth of modern France. The ideals put forward at the time are those of France today: Liberty, equality and union Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, August 26, 1789 The rise of the Middle Class / Bourgeoisie
  • - The invention of Fire is one of the main factors in the emergence of architecture. - cooking - heating . Gathering and socializing - keeping beasts away from them
  • Industrial Revolution 1750-1850 Began in England in Coalbrookdale, Shropshire, 1777 and quickly spread across Europe and North America. New technology and invention transformed an agricultural and commercial way of life into a modern industrial society - Cast Iron. -Iron and glass industry ( 1840s) , machinery (industrial technology mechanized) , and light and fire
  • Iron Bridge Gorge in Coalbrookdale, Shropshire, 1777 by Abraham Darby It was the first arch bridge in the world to be made out of cast iron, a material which was previously far too expensive to use for large structures.
  • -Changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution revolutionized families and lifestyles as the factory system drew workers away from the rural family economy to urban areas a dirty and a poor home because they didn't have hygiene. They were many in their home ; we can see five children. We think they were very sad and sorry. It was one room for seven persons.
  • Children at work
  • The impact of the Industrial Revolution in Europe was : The growth of urban population- problems of housing , transportation, hygienic problems
  • -The growth of urban population
  • This situation give the rise to new phenomena such as : - the revolution of transport - the concentration of workers - the migration of rural people to cities The upheaval was so rapid that the urban centers could no longer cope with the several problems faced them
  • Paris Napoleon III and Haussmannian Planning in Paris
  • Napoleon III and Haussmannian Planning in Paris With the fall of monarchy , a new conservative authoritarian regime , at its head came to power - the coronation of Napoleon III - the notion of superiority ; France as the center of Europe Colonial Expansion / Architecture (e.x Egypt) Grandeur Hated to seek the beautiful in anything other than that which was large, his architect Pierre- Francoise Fontaine wrote Natural to the man to admire size, which always related to his mind with the ideas of power and strength -
  • power and strength Versailles (Louis XIV) Occupied and organized a largely inbuilt area Napoleon demolished the old fabric of cities in order to make room for the public theater of the regime Men as great as the monuments they leave behind, Napoleon declared
  • Napoleonic period -The academic method of design thoughts in the French professional schools which were recognized under Napoleon Ecole des Beaux Arts (School of Fine Arts) Ecole Polytechnique ( Polytechnique School) -Special attitude toward urbanism Town planning became one of the most efficient instruments of power -Cities such as Paris were re-planed due to the influx of the rural immigrants . -Napoleon embarked the rebuilding of Paris in 1852 -Georges Eugene Hussmann (1809-1891) ,
  • -the scheme falls into four categories : 1 - Communication network - to connect the railway stations scattered around the periphery of the city - To cut new, wide roads through the heart of the old city - straight avenues were strategically important for troop parades - the boulevard became more important than the square
  • 2- Gardens and Parks - several small parks were built throughout of the city, and two large parks were created on the west and the east of the city edges, these Hussmann called the lungs of the city, - new aqueducts were built to bring the clean water -3- Building typology -4- Modification of the administrative organization - the number of the city district was increased due to the expansion of the city (between 1815 and 1850 , the population of Paris grew from 500,000 to 1 million inhabitants )
  • the radial roads to the suburbs, the strategic nodal points, and the circular boulevards. Georges Eugene Hussmann
  • Paris before Hussmann Paris after Hussmann
  • The creation of new industrial cities on open land, including all necessary civil amenities and housing for the workers Examples: Saltaire, textile industrial city , England, 1852 Port Sunlight, 1888, England ( landscaped village, garden village ), community Pullman, south of Chicago (not most progressively socially) , but will planned
  • -The need for new structures, new building types , such as railway stations, bridges, exhibitions Saint Pancras Station train shed , London, 1863-65 the clear span 71.3 meters
  • -factories, warehouses Example warship industry in England 13 years for execution firstly was to be sheltered by wooden berths example Portmouth 1814, steel/cast Iron was then introduced
  • -Increased number of hotels, banks, offices, government buildings. -In artistic and architectural context the replacement of the craft by mechanized industrial products . - the replacement of the handicraft ship by the specialized expertise contractors on a large scale
  • the transformation of building technology came from new: -man-made building materials -New structural techniques -new technical services parts and elements were produced on an industrial method (identical elements) -All together they produced a universal structural system
  • Construction of new building types such as Exhibition Halls required : -Time value -Vast Area -High durability -Low cost -Easy to assemble and dismantle (Mercantile Capitalism )
  • Joseph Paxton the designer of Crystal Palace Hyde Park in London, 1851 He was not an architect but a green house builder The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations Great Exhibition short time for execution almost 9 months Grid principle 24 by 24 foot module Columns were set 48 foot apart Vast area : 563* 124 meter Rational fabrication, extensive use of prefabricated parts Easy assembly : was assembled at the building site
  • Serially manufactured - similar parts had the same color (Joints: blue, roof trusses: red) The central cross aisle was given a wooden parallel vault in order to accommodate a number of large objects Numerous modifications were introduced during the reconstruction in Sydenham 1854, the nave was also given a