Nuclear weapon

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Nuclear weapon

Nuclear weaponsSocial Science presentationClass-9D

CONTENT:1.What is Nuclear Weapon?

2.Types of Nuclear Weapon

3.History of Nuclear Weapon4.Effects of Nuclear Weapon5.Atomic bomb effect6.What is Nuclear Material7.List of Countries with Nuclear Weapon8. Why is it Important?9.Human Society and culture10.Facts on Nuclear Weapon11.Starting to conclude

Nuclear WeaponsAccept it? Or reject it?

What is a nuclear weapon? A nuclear weapon: is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Both reactions release vast quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter; a modern thermonuclear weapon weighing little more than a thousand kilograms can produce an explosion comparable to the detonation of more than a billion kilograms of conventional high explosive.

What is Nuclear Weapon?

Nuclear weapon , device designed to release energy in an explosive manner as a result of nuclear fission, nuclear fusion,or a combination of the two processes . Fission weapons are commonly referred to as atomic bombs. Fusion weapons are also referred to as thermonuclear bombs or,more commonly,hydrogen bombs; they are usually defined as nuclear weapons in which at least a portion of the energy is released by nuclear fusion.

Nuclear weapons produce enormous explosive energy.Their significance may best be appreciated by the coining of the words Kiloton(1,000tons)and megaton (1,000,000tons)to describe their blast energy in equivalent weights of the conventional chemical axplosive TNT.For e.g.,the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima,Japan ,in 1945,containing only about 64kg(140pounds)fo highly enriched uranium,released energy equaling about 15kilotons of chemical explosive.The blast immediately produced a strong shock wave,enormous amonts of heat,and lethal ionizing radiation.Convection currents created by the explosion Drew dust and other debris into the air,creatingThe mushroom-shaped cloud that has sinceBecome the virtual signature of a nuclearExplosion.

In addition,radioactive debris was carried by winds high into the atmosphere,later to settle to Earth as radioactive fallout.The enormous toll in detruction,death,injury,and sickness produced by the explosions at Hiroshima and,three days later,at Nagasaki was on a scale never before produced by any single weapon.In the decades since1945,even as manyCountries have developed nuclear weapons of far greaterStrength than those used against the Japanese cities,concerns about the dreadful effects of suchweapons have have driven governments to negotiate arms control agreements such as the Nuclear Test-Ban strategists and planners,the very presence of these weapons of unparalleled destructive power has created a dictinct Discipline,with its own internal logic and set of doctrines,Known as Nuclear Stratergy.

TYPES OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS

Fission weaponsIn fission weapons, a mass offissilematerial (enriched uraniumorplutonium) is assembled into asupercritical massthe amount of material needed to start anexponentially growingnuclear chain reactioneither by shooting one piece of sub-critical material into another (the "gun" method) or by compressing usingexplosive lensesa sub-critical sphere of material usingchemical explosivesto many times its original density (the "implosion" method). The latter approach is considered more sophisticated than the former and only the latter approach can be used if the fissile material is plutonium.

Fusion weaponsApure fusion weaponis a hypotheticalhydrogen bombdesignthat does not need afission"primary" explosive to ignite thefusionofdeuteriumandtritium, two heavyisotopes ofhydrogen(seethermonuclear weaponfor more information about fission-fusion weapons). Such a weapon would require no fissile material and would therefore be much easier to build in secret than existing weapons. The necessity of separating high-quality fissile material requires a substantial industrial investment, and blocking the sale and transfer of the needed machinery has been the primary mechanism to controlnuclear proliferationto date.

HISTORY OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS

Nuclear weaponspossess enormous destructive power derived fromnuclear fissionor combined fission andfusionreactions. Starting with scientific breakthroughs made during the 1930s, the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada collaborated during World War IIin what was called theManhattan Projectto counter the suspectedNazi German atomic bomb project. In August 1945 two fission bombs weredropped on Japanending thePacific War. TheSoviet Unionstarted development shortly thereafter with their ownatomic bomb project and not long after that both countries developed even more powerful fusion weapons known as "hydrogen bombs."

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The history of nuclear weaponsScientist discovered how to create a chain reaction in the 1930s.Robert Oppenheimer led an operation known as The Manhattan Project.The Manhattan Project is the code name for the US government's secret project that was established before World War II and culminated in the development of the nuclear bomb.

History Of Nuclear Weapons The first nuclear weapons were created by the United States, and Albert Einstein Manhattan Project.While the first weapons were developed mainly out of fear that Germany they would first develop them, they were eventually used against the Japanese cities of Hiroshima Nagasaki in August 1945.

History Of NUCLEAR WeaponsNuclear weapons were symbols of military and national power, and nuclear testing nuclear was often used both to test new designs as well as to send political messages.

History Of Nuclear WeaponsOther nations also developed nuclear weapons during this time, including the United Kingdom France, and China. These five members of the "nuclear club" agreed to attempt to limit the spread of nuclear rise to other nations, though at least three other countries (India, South Africa, Pakistan, and most likely Israel) developed nuclear arms during this time.

Why people want to develop nuclear weapons?They were made for National Defense.They are powerful For intimidating other countriesIt is a statement of development and power

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Effects of nuclear explosionsHowever, depending on the design of the weapon and the environment in which it is detonated the energy distributed to these categories can be increased or decreased. The blast effect is created by the coupling of immense amounts of energy, spanning theelectromagnetic spectrum, with the surroundings. In locations such as submarine is produced as blast and how much as radiation. When an air burst occurs lethal blast and thermal effects proportionally scale much more rapidly than lethal radiation effects, as higher and higher yield nuclear weapons are used.

The physical-damage mechanisms of a nuclear weapon (blast and thermal radiation) are identical to those of conventional explosives. However, the energy produced by a nuclear explosive is millions of times more powerful per gram and the temperatures reached are briefly in the tens of millions of degrees.Energy from a nuclear explosive is initially released in several forms of penetrating radiation.

Effect of Nuclear WeaponsMost of the damage caused by a nuclear weapon is not directly related to the nuclear process of energy release, and would be present for any explosion of the same magnitude.

Effect of Nuclear WeaponsA nuclear weapon that is exploded underground can destroy a deeply send out energy efficiently and requires significantly less power to do so than a nuclear weapon.

Effect of Nuclear WeaponsAlthough a nuclear weapon is capable of causing the same destruction as usual explosives through the effects of blast and thermal radiation, release much larger amounts of energy in a much shorter period of time.

Effect of Nuclear Weapons The energy released from a nuclear weapon comes in four major categories:Blast 40-60% of total energy Thermal radiation 30-50% of total energy Ionizing radiation 5% of total energy Residual radiation (fallout) 5-10% of total energy

Effect of Nuclear Weapons

Atomic Bomb EffectAtomic Bomb release four kinds of energy.Radiation (Cause Disease and will effect the next Generation)ElectromagneticHeatPressurehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NpbCZ8QRpEg&feature=player_embedded#

WHAT IS NUCLEAR MATERIAL?Nuclear materials are the key ingredients in nuclear weapons.they include fissile,fissionable and source materials.Fissile materials are those which are composed of atoms that can be splitBy neutrons in a self-sustaining chain reaction to release energy,and include plutonium-239And uranium-235.Fussionable materials are those in which the atoms can be fused in order to release energy,and include deuterium and tritium.Source of additional atomic particals for fission.They include tritium,polonium,beryllium,lithium-6 and helium-3

LIST OF STATES WITH NUCLEAR WEAPONSFive nuclear-weapon states under the NPTUnited StatesRussian Federation (formerly Soviet Union)United KingdomFranceChinaOther states declaring possession of nuclear weaponsIndiaPakistanNorth KoreaOther states believed to possess nuclear weaponsIsrael

The destruction of Hiroshima/Nagasakih

BeforeAfter

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Hiroshima was the primary target of the first nuclear bombing mission on August 6, with Nagasaki being the alternative target.70,000 to 80,000 people were killed immediately and another 70.000 were injured in Hiroshima.80,000 had died from the bombing in Nagasaki.The code name for the bomb used in Hiroshima was called, Little Boy. The bomb used in Nagasaki was called, Fat Boy.

Little BoyFat Man

China Effect Of Nuclear WeaponsU.S. intelligence predict t