Biology 3.3 Responses to the Environment
Biology 3.3 Responses to the Environment
AS 91603 5 External Credits
Ms Gibellini 2014
Achievement StandardDemonstrate understanding involves describing plant and animal responses to their external environment. The description includes:the process(es) within each response and/or the adaptive advantage provided for the organism in relation to its ecological niche.Demonstrate in-depth understanding involves using biological ideas to explain:how the responses occurwhy the responses provide an adaptive advantage for the organism in relation to its ecological niche.Responses are selected from those relating to:orientation in space (tropisms, nastic responses, taxes, kineses, homing, migration)orientation in time (annual, daily, lunar, tidal rhythms)interspecific relationships (competition for resources, mutualism, exploitation including herbivory, predation, and parasitism)intraspecific relationships (competition for resources, territoriality, hierarchical behaviour, cooperative interactions, reproductive behaviours).External environment will include both biotic and abiotic factors.
Exam SpecificationsCandidates should be familiar with graphical and tabulated data.
Candidates should be familiar with the following terms:agonistic behavior endogenous home rangeauxin entrainment kin selectionbiological clock exogenous photoperiodismcooperative breeding free running period zeitgeber.courtshipTopic OutlineThe Basics abiotic, biotic, ecological niche
Responses in space
Responses in time
Intra specific relations
The BasicsAbiotic non livingTemperatureLight intensityMoistureSubstrateChemicals/pH
BioticPredatorsPreyCourtship and mating behaviours
Online Activities1. Watch the following clips, complete the quizzes.
2. Read through the following pagehttp://www2.ccsd.ws/sbfaculty/team8e/jecole/Science/abiotic_vs_.htm
3. Complete the following activity to test your understandinghttp://www.pbslearningmedia.org/asset/lsps07_int_ecosystem/The BasicsEcological nicheWhere an organism lives, what it eats, what eats it, when it is active, adaptations it has to survive
Realised nicheWhere the organism is actually found due to limiting factors competition, lack of resourcesFundamental nicheWhere the organism could potentially be found
Why Respond?Why respond? - put your ideas onto the following padlet brainstorm http://padlet.com/wall/ResponseAdvantage
Adaptive Advantage - directly or indirectly helps individual's survive orreproduce
What is the adaptive advantage of being able to respond to the environment?
Get maximum sunlight for photosynthesisGrow roots towards nutrients and water sourceMove to warmer surroundingsHide when its daylight or too cold conserve energyOnline Activities1. Watch the following clip, read the information and answer the quiz
Stimulus:Anything that causes an organism to react. CauseStimulus : singularStimuli: plural
Response:Any change an organism makes as a result of a change in the environmentEffect
How do organism detect changeAnimals use their sensesSightHearingTasteTouchSmell
Plants use chemicals and hormones to detect changes in their environment
How do animals respond?InnateBorn with behaviourSpiders spinning a web
LearnedTaught behaviour over timeChimps using stick to get ants from a log
VideosInnate BehaviourLearnt Behaviour
Learnt and Innate Human BehavioursAim:To unlearn an innate behaviour
Method:Blow across the eye of your partnerWhat happens? Did the person do this consciously? What is the adaptive advantage of this behaviour?Repeat (blowing across eye) at 10 sec intervals, record how many times you do it before the person learns not to react What is the stimulus? What is the response? What is the adaptive advantage of unlearning this innate behaviour?
Online Activities1. Watch the following clips
2. Read the following informationhttp://click4biology.info/c4b/e/e3.htm#1
http://www.ib.bioninja.com.au/options/option-e-neurobiology-and-2/e3-innate-and-learned-behav.htmlBehaviour TypesWhat are the differences between innate and learned behaviour?
2. What is the adaptive advantage of:
- having innate behaviours?
- being able to learn behaviour?
Growth movements slowchange in size/shape of cellsControlled by hormones
Turgor movementsFaster, reversible Water content of cells changesHow do Plants Respond?Plants use a range of hormones to respond to stimuli:
Google doc of tables
HormoneWhere is it madeEffect siteActionEffectAuxinGibberelinCytokininsAbscisic acid (ABA)EthylenePlants use a range of hormones to respond to stimuli:
HormoneWhereEffect siteActionEffectAuxinShoot tip (meristem)Growing regionsCell elongation due to turgor pressureTip bends towards stimulusGibberelinFruits, seeds, growing buds & stemsWhole plantGrowth of cells
Breaking of dormancyGrowth, germination of seeds, flowering, fruit growthCytokininsRoots & fruitBranch & leaf budsPromotes cell division and differentiationGrowth of lateral branchesAbscisic acid (ABA)ChloroplastsWhere fruit & leaves join to plant. SeedInhibits growthCauses fruit & leaves to fall from treeCloses stomataPromotes seed dormancy
EthyleneRipening fruitCellular metabolismIncreases sugar in fruitRipens fruit & leaves and causes it to fall
Online Activities1. Watch the following video, read the text, complete the quiz
Plant ResponsesVernalisationflowering or germination after a cold snapEnsures flowering/germination in spring
DormancyArrested (slowed) plant growthEnsures survival during winter/summer drought
AbscissionLeaf fallPrevents leaves freezing in winter
Jellybeans and AuxinAim: To demonstrate effects of auxin in the shoot.
Method:Create a shoot with small jellybeans (5 on each side) and half a marshmallow at the top (apical meristem) take a photo
2. When exposed to light lollie pop, IAA (choc chips) is released from the marshmallow (apical meristem) and travels to the dark side of the stem take a photo
3. The IAA (choc chips) is absorbed into the cells on the dark side, causing these cells to enlargeslowly remove the choc chips and replace 3 small jelly beans with large ones on the side opposite to sun one at a time, ensuring the top and bottoms of jellybeans are always touching and the middle, take a photo each time
4. Keep the jellybeans ALL touching and the top two jellybeans ending at the same point with the marshmallow on the top.
Results:5. What happens to the direction of growth? Why?
IAAThere are many types of AuxinsIndole Acetic Acid is involved with cell elongation
AuxinAuxin is a plant hormone which causes cells to elongate
Auxin is made in the tip, and moves down the dark side of the shoot, causing the shoot to bend towards the stimulus
Auxin is soluble in water, but not mica or glass
Auxin also moves with gravity to lower side causing elongation an