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In this ppt i have add 4 types of project which are interested and can be taken as reference for other projects related to this topic.

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2. 1. Site and its surroundings 2. Energy Efficiency 3. Water Efficiency 4. Material Efficiency 5. Indoor Air Quality6. Waste Reduction 7. Low maintenance costs 3. PROJECT 2: SOLID GROUND? MEASURING SOIL BEARING CAPACITY. 4. Foundations for many types of structures rest on soil. This project shows how you can investigate the bearing capacity of different types of soil. The goal of this project is to test the bearing capacity of different types of soil. 5. The bearing capacity of soil is an important consideration in construction projects. Dams, bridge abutments, and temporary support structures (falsework) during construction are all examples of structures that can be supported by underlying soil 6. large plastic tub (container for soil),1-inch diameter dowel (length approx. equal to height of tub),ruler,marker,small pieces of wood or hardboard for platform and jig,drill with 1-inch spade bit or hole saw,file,1/4-inch diameter dowel for legs of jig,different types of soil (play sand, mason's sand, topsoil, subsoil),shovel or garden trowel,weight for platform (e.g., bucket with water). 7. You can make a simple experimental apparatus for measuring soil bearing capacity in a plastic tub. You'll need a piece of 1-inch diameter dowel, about as long as your tub is high. Mark off 1-cm increments along the length of the dowel, as shown in Figure 1, below.Figure 1. 1-inch diameter dowel, marked off in 1-cm increments. 8. Make a platform from a small piece of wood or Make a platform from a small piece of wood of the dowel and hardboard and attach it firmly to the top or hardboard attach it firmly to the top of the dowel with a wood screw and with a wood screw and glue (Figure 2). It's a good idea glue (Figure 2). It's a good idea to drill a pilot hole for the to screw, so the dowel doesn't screw, so the dowel wood drill a pilot hole for the woodsplit. Your platform should doesn't split. to support the weight you'll be using. be large enough Your platform should be large enough to support the weight you'll be using.Figure 2. Dowel with platform attached. 9. Make a jig to hold the dowel vertically over the soil surface (Figure 3). The dowel should be able to slide freely, so the hole needs to be slightly larger than the diameter of the dowel. You can drill it with a 1-inch spade bit, or a 1-inch hole saw, and then file out the hole to enlarge it enough for the dowel to slide freely. Make the legs from thinner dowels, and glue them to the bottom. You'll push these into the soil, so they need to be a bit longer than your tub is high (tall enough to hold the dowel upright). 10. Figure 3. Jig for holding the dowel upright. The hole should be slightly larger than the dowel, allowing it to slide freely, but still supporting it. The legs should reach the bottom of the tub, and leave the platform high enough above the soil to keep the dowel from tipping over . 11. Fill the plastic tub with the sand or soil you want to test. Push the legs of the jig firmly down into the soil, and set the dowel so that it rests on the surface of the soil (see Figure 4).Figure 4. The dowel supported in the jig. Push the legs of the jig firmly down into the soil, and set the dowel so that it rests on the surface of the soil. 12. Load the platform with weight (e.g., container + 500 ml water), and record how far the dowel penetrates into the soil. Keep track of the results in your lab notebook. Add an increment of weight and record how far the dowel penetrates into the soil. Repeat until the dowel does not penetrate further. Repeat the measurement at least three times, in different locations in the tub. Calculate the average penetration depth for each weight and soil type tested. For each soil type, make a graph of the penetration depth vs. weight. 13. PROJECT 3 - 14. In this project, we will build a tower of Lego Duplos on slopes of varying angles and determine how deep the foundations need to be to keep the tower standing upright. 15. Building a skyscraper, or any structure, is more than just building the walls, windows, and floors. All structures require a foundation to keep them from falling down. This is especially important when a structure is built on a hill or on a slope. . You will investigate how deep you have to dig the foundation for each angle of slope. Your goal is to make sure that your building doesn't fall down! The purpose of the foundation is to transfer the load of buildings and structures to the soil. There are shallow foundations and deep foundations, depending on the kind of structure and the soil. When designing the foundation, the engineer must consider several variables. These include scour and the bearing capacity of the soil. The bearing capacity is the ability of the soil to support the load of the structure. Scour is when flowing water removes supporting soil from around the foundation. All variables must be studied and considered when designing a foundation. A hidden fault can cause a foundation to fail, resulting in the collapse of the building or structure. A building fails when it falls over or even when it starts to lean, like the Leaning Tower of Pisa. An example of a foundation that hasn't failed is that of the Sears Tower in Chicago, Illinois. It is one of the tallest buildings in the world, measuring at 1,729 feet from the bottom to the tip of its spire. There are 110 floors in the Sears Tower. The foundation is 100 feet deep and it is surrounded by 200 circular caissons. 16. Figure 1. The Sears Tower in Chicago, Illinois 17. Vinyl rain gutter, 5 feet long; available at hardware stores Hacksaw; available at hardware stores (needed only if your gutter is longer than 5 feet) Safety goggles (needed only if using the hacksaw) Clay bricks (1520); available at hardware stores Gardening gloves Landscaping rocks (1 bag of about 1-inch-long pieces); available at hardware and gardening stores Measuring cup Potting soil, 1 cubic foot; available at hardware and gardening stores Digging tool Watering can Lab notebook Calculator with sine, cosine, and tangent functions (trigonometric functions) Lego Duplos or Mega Bloks Ruler Dense foam bouncy ball, 2 -inch diameter; available at novelty stores Tape (regular Scotch tape will work fine) Tape measure Graph paper 18. Procedure Building the slope If the vinyl gutter is longer than 5 feet, use the hacksaw and to cut it into a 5-foot-long piece. Have an adult help you with this and always use proper safety equipment. Place the gutter on the ground with a brick at one end to keep the soil from falling out that end of the gutter. Put on your gardening gloves and scatter 1 cups of landscaping rocks along the bottom of the gutter. The rocks should be placed evenly along the bottom of the gutter. Now spread the potting soil evenly on top of the gravel. You should have much more soil than rocks in the gutter. Fill the gutter up to the top and pack the soil down with the blade of your digging tool. The soil should be packed to the very top of the gutter. Check to see how moist the soil is. If it is dry, water the soil with the watering can so that it is damp, but not wet or muddy. If you do this science project over several days, you will want to dampen the soil with water every day to make sure that the moisture content is consistent throughout the project. Tilt the gutter up and prop that end up with a pile of bricks. Start out by propping the gutter up on five bricks. The gutter will need support in the middle to prevent buckling, so place as many bricks as will fit under the midpoint. 19. Now you're ready to determine the angle of the slope you've just created. First determine the slope. Measure the height of the bricks holding up the end of the gutter, b, as shown in Figure 2. Using your calculator, divide that by the distance from one end of the gutter to the other, a, as shown in Figure 2. Record the slope in your lab notebook.Figure 2. Divide b by a to first determine the slope and then the angle of the slope. 20. Use the slope b/a to determine the angle of the slope. The arctangent function on your calculator will allow you to figure out the angle of the triangle you've created, given b/a. Now calculate the arctangent (or tan-1) of the slope ratio. This will give you the angle of the slope. If you need help, ask an adult or your math teacher. Once you have calculated the angle, note it down in your lab notebook. b Equation 1: Angle of slope =Arctangent ( a)oAngle of slope is in unit degreesob is the height in inchesoa is the length in inches 21. Testing the Tower Build a tower of Lego Duplos that is 10 blocks high. Make sure that the pieces are put together tightly. Tape the tower together so that the tower acts as one piece, rather than as individual Lego Duplos. Begin with the Foundation Depth: 1 Block trial. Near the middle of the slope, dig a hole that is one Lego Duplo block deep. Place the tower in that hole. Make sure that the entire Lego Duplo block is buried in the hole: back, front, and the sides. You can have a small mound of soil on the downslope side of the tower to ensure that the tower is buried the same amount on all sides. Push the dirt around the tower down firmly. The tower should be straight up and not tilted. See Figure 3. 22. Figure 3. How to place the tower incorrectly (left) and correctly (right). 23. Place the bouncy ball on the dirt-packed gutter, about 12 inches above the tower, as shown in Figure 4. Mark this point with an extra Lego Duplo block so that you can keep rolling the ball from the same point for each trial. Aim the ball at the tower. Let go of the ball. Make sure that the ball hits the tower. Did the tower fall over? If not, did the tower move? If the tower did move, quantify the movement by measuring the size of the gap between the tower and soil with your ruler (see Figure 5). Record whether the tower fell