Researching Women Collective Action Researching Women Collective Action Tanga region – Tanzania Tanga region – Tanzania WCA project meeting 6 – 9 April, 2011 Bamako - Mali 1

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Page 1: Tanga Presentation (Chris)

Researching Women Collective Action Researching Women Collective Action Tanga region – TanzaniaTanga region – Tanzania

WCA project meeting6 – 9 April, 2011Bamako - Mali


Page 2: Tanga Presentation (Chris)

Tanga region mapTanga region map


Page 3: Tanga Presentation (Chris)

Subsectors: -• Vegetables (Lushoto district –

Dule and Lukozi)• Maize (Handeni District –

Kwaluwala and Magamba)• Allanblackia ( Muheza District –

IBC Msasa and Antakae-Kwezitu village)


Page 4: Tanga Presentation (Chris)


FGDsFGD 1 = Participants 30 - 40FGD II = Participants 10 – 15


Page 5: Tanga Presentation (Chris)

Vegetable subsector - Vegetable subsector - LushotoLushoto

30 villages with CAs (with average of 40 members)were initiated by and received support from PADEP

Also there is an umbrella organization Usambara Lishe Trust (ULT) which started in 1996 by the initiatives of SECAP Germany funded project

The aim of helping vegetables and fruits farmers to access markets.


Page 6: Tanga Presentation (Chris)

This NGO is an umbrella for four producers groups which are Boga, Soni, Malindi and Lushoto.

The main actors for the vegetable sub sector include district council, NGOs e.g. WVT, ENVIROCARE, FAIDA Mali, SIDO, and traders

Two villages Dule and Lukozi


Page 7: Tanga Presentation (Chris)

Gendered sub-sector Gendered sub-sector mapsmapsThey market locally and outside

(Dar, Arusha)Map


Page 8: Tanga Presentation (Chris)

Constraints faced by Constraints faced by women women The following are the list of the obstaclesRestriction placed by husband due to

customs and traditional that women can not go and sell crops to the market

Family responsibilitiesTransportation problemsLack of capital for producing in bulkLack of market information Table 2


Page 9: Tanga Presentation (Chris)

Benefits and costs Benefits and costs The major benefits mentioned for

women being in group are:-◦Access to technical advice◦Increase farm incomes◦Build their own assets

The major costs:-◦Time to attend the meetings◦Contribution (fees)

(Table 3)


Page 10: Tanga Presentation (Chris)

Characteristics of CACharacteristics of CAGroups are concentrated in 1CActive and leadership (PADEP

criterion)Eternally supported (PADEP criterion)


Page 11: Tanga Presentation (Chris)

AOBAOBBy being in group, women feel

that have been empowered. Generally all the CAs are the

results of the initiative of external agency (e.g. District council)


Page 12: Tanga Presentation (Chris)

Maize subector - HandeniMaize subector - HandeniMany collective action groups involved

in agricultural related production and marketing were found to have been formed as a result of PADEP and World Vision Tanzania (WVT).

Most of the groups in the area were formed between 2006 and 2010,


Page 13: Tanga Presentation (Chris)

Although marketing of their produces featured as one of the goals in the group formation but none of the groups has not yet actively participated in the market of the maize collectively.

Hence, collective action along maize sub sector is centred around production and mostly in accessing training for improved agronomic practises and accessing production inputs.


Page 14: Tanga Presentation (Chris)

The main actors for the sub sector include district council, NGOs e.g. WVT, ENVIROCARE, and traders

Subsector Map


Page 15: Tanga Presentation (Chris)

ConstraintsConstraintsMaize production and marketing in

Handeni district is constrained by many factors, low production and lack of enough surpluses for marketing was a serious challenge.

But during the FGD, women mentioned some constraints Table 2

Results reveals that women face more problems when they seek to act in markets individually,


Page 16: Tanga Presentation (Chris)

some of these constraints are envisaged to be low when they engage in groups,

mixed groups seem to offer them more benefits than women only groups.

women revealed that restricted mobility and family responsibility placed by men is a combination of cultural traditions and ignorance


Page 17: Tanga Presentation (Chris)

In the FGD women who are involved in maize production and marketing and are not members of the groups have the opinion that there are no difference between them and those in groups with regard to access to markets

They reported that they all sell to same persons (visiting traders) and the price is same for both group and non group members

What they lack from not being in groups is training and access to inputs.


Page 18: Tanga Presentation (Chris)

Benefits and costsBenefits and costsBenefits:Get trainingAccess inputs Costs:Contribution (fees)Time spent in meeting (especially the

credit and savings – meet weekly) Table 3


Page 19: Tanga Presentation (Chris)

Characteristics of CAsCharacteristics of CAsThe local district council through its

department of agriculture was the leading organisation that was behind formation of all groups involved production and marketing of maize in Handeni district

The groups found in this survey were still in the stages of improving productivity and none of them have currently actively engaged in markets.


Page 20: Tanga Presentation (Chris)

Although most of these groups are concerned primarily with increasing crops and animal productivity some groups formed on their own initiatives (offshoots) are involved in credits and saving activities

Table 2


Page 21: Tanga Presentation (Chris)

Women involvement in most groups is high, they form the majority in most groups and they equally participate in all activities that are done in these groups.

Most of the groups are formal, have been registered at the district council, have constitutions and internal rules that set

Many CA in maize subsector are externally supported.

Are mixed multi-purpose


Page 22: Tanga Presentation (Chris)

Allanblackia - MuhezaAllanblackia - MuhezaThe groups in Allanblackia were

initiated by FAIDA Mali starting in 2003

There are about 45 groups in Muheza and 7 groups in Korogwe.


Page 23: Tanga Presentation (Chris)

Subsector mapSubsector mapThe allanblackia market is

dominated by one buyer (Novel Development Tanzania Ltd).

This company buys allanblackia through its collection centers in the villages.

The primary processing is done at done.

Subsector map


Page 24: Tanga Presentation (Chris)

Constraints faced by Constraints faced by womenwomenIt was mentioned during FGD that the

major constraints are:◦ Restriction placed by husband◦ Transportation problem◦ Family responsibility

By being in groups, some women have been able to overcome transportation problem and family responsibility.


Page 25: Tanga Presentation (Chris)

Benefits and costsBenefits and costsThe major benefits mentioned by

women being in groups are:- Increase farm income- Gained confidence to speak

(have voice)- Accumulate assets e.g. goats,

cattle- Access to technical support- Table


Page 26: Tanga Presentation (Chris)

Characteristics of CA in AB Characteristics of CA in AB subsectorsubsectorAll the groups in Allan blackia

were formed by FAIDA and receive training and other support from FAIDA Mali.



Page 27: Tanga Presentation (Chris)