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Text of n.aris.barok

  • 1.Northern AristocraticBaroque

2. FlandersNetherlands Context(Flemish) (Dutch) In the 17th century, Flanders (approximately present-day Belgium,but also small amounts of northern France and the Netherlands)remained Catholic and under Spanish control (can be referred to asSpanish Netherlands). As such, Flemish Baroque art is closelyrelated to the Baroque art of Italy. The major art patron in 17th century France was the absolutistmonarch Louis XIV, the Sun King, the who consolidated power overFrance by eradicating the still-remaining feudal lords. Under his rule,France became the most powerful country of the 17th century. The Thirty Years War (1618-1648), ended by the Treaty ofWestphalia, lead to a political restructuring of Europe. As the divide between Protestants and Catholics widened, theneed for secular political systems became apparent. Triangular trade increased variety of commodities available. Slavesfrom Africa were taken to colonies in the Americas to produce cropssuch as sugar, tobacco, and rice, increasing the prosperity ofEuropean nations. The resulting worldwide mercantile systemEuropean after the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648permanently changed the face of Europe.(Flanders is labeled as Spanish Netherlands) 3. Peter Paul Rubens The greatest Flemish Baroque painter was Peter Paul Rubens,who was influenced by Michelangelo, Titian, Carracci, andCaravaggio. His own influence was likewise international. Rubens possessed an aristocratic education and a courtiersmanner, diplomacy, and tact, which made him popular amongstthe elites of Europe. Among his patrons, Rubens counted the following:-Dukes of Mantua-King Philip IV of Spain (advised him in his art collecting)-King Charles I of England-Marie deMedici of France-Spanish governors of Flanders Because of his international popularity, he was often alsoentrusted with important diplomatic missions. He produced a large volume of work by employing a largegroup of associates and assistant painters. Rubens also amassed a large fortune as an art dealer to thePeter Paul Rubens. Lived 1577 1640. European elite, with which he bought a townhouse in Antwerpand a castle in the countryside. 4. Elevation (Raising) of the Cross Peter Paul Rubens. 1610. Oil on wood.Elevation of the CrossFrom St. Walburga, Antwerp. Center panel 15 x 11 Rubens lived in Italy between 1600 and 1608, where he studied the Italian Renaissance and Baroque masters. While in Italy, Rubens studied Michelangelos Sistine Chapel frescoes and important ancient sculptures, such as Laocoon and his Sons, by doing numerous black-chalk drawings. After returning home, he painted the Elevation of the Cross for the church of Saint Walburga in Antwerp (later moved to the citys cathedral). By investing in sacred art, Flemish churches sought to affirm their allegiance to Catholicism and Spanish rule after a period of Protestant iconoclastic fervor in the region. The choice of subject, the raising of Christ nailed to the cross, gave Rubens the opportunity to show off the muscular physiques and twisting movement he learned from Michelangelos work. The dramatic lighting shows the influence of Caravaggio. Although he later developed a softer, more coloristic style, the human body in action (draped or undraped, male or female) remained the focus of his art. 5. Arrival of Marie deMedici at MarseillesArrival of Marie de Medici at MarseillesPeter Paul Rubens. 1625. Oil on canvas. 13 x 97. Rubens utilized the ostentation and spectacle that is characteristicof Italian Baroque art, which also appealed to royalty andaristocracy, as it did the Catholic Church in Italy. The magnificenceand splendor of Baroque imagery reinforced the authority and rightto rule of the highborn. Marie deMedici, a member of the famous Florentine house andwidow of Henry IV, the first Bourbon king of France, commissionedRubens to paint a series of huge canvases memorializing andglorifying her career. In this image, Marie disembarks a ship after traveling to Francefrom Italy, where she is greeted by an allegorical personification ofFrance (dressed in a cape decorated with the fleur-de-lis, the symbolof French royalty). The personification of Fame trumpets overhead, while Neptuneand the Nereids (daughters of the Titan sea god Nereus) hail herfrom below amid swirling waves. Below the Medici coat of arms on the boat stands the commanderof the ship, whose unmoving pose and black clothing stands outagainst the other figures, who are vigorously animated in silver,ivory, gold, and red. 6. Allegory of the Outbreak of WarAllegory of the Outbreak of War(aka Consequences of War) Rubens frequently promoted peace as a diplomat. When Rubens. 1638. Oil on canvas. 6 9 x 11 4.commissioned in 1638 to produce a painting for Ferdinando IIdeMedici, grand duke of Tuscany, Rubens expressed hisattitude towards the Thirty Years War. He wrote a letter explaining the allegory to his patron:The principal figure is Mars, who has left the open temple of Janus(which in time of peace, according to Roman custom, remained closed)and rushes forth with shield and blood-stained sword, threatening thepeople with great disaster. He pays little heed to Venus, his mistress,who, accompanied by Amors and Cupids, strives with caresses andembraces to hold him. From the other side, Mars is dragged forward bythe Fury Alekto, with a torch in her hand. Near by are monsterspersonifying Pestilence and Famine, those inseparable partners of War.On the ground, turning her back, lies a woman with a broken lute,representing Harmony, which is incompatible with the discord of War.There is also a mother with her child in her arms, indicating that fertility,procreation, and charity are thwarted by War, which corrupts anddestroys everything. In addition, one sees an architect thrown on hisback, with his instruments in his hand, to show that which, in time ofBeside them is the caduceus and an olive branch, attribute of Peace; thesepeace, is constructed for the use and ornamentation of the City is hurled are also cast aside. That mournful woman clothed in black, with torn veil,to the ground by the force of arms and falls to ruin. I believe, if I robbed of all her jewels and other ornaments, is the unfortunate Europeremember rightly, that you will find on the ground, under the feet of who, for so many years now, has suffered plunder, outrage, and misery,Mars, a book and a drawing on paper, to imply that he treads underfootwhich are so injurious to everyone that it is unnecessary to go into detail.all the arts and letters. There ought also to be a bundle of darts or arrows, Europes attribute is the globe, borne by a small angel or genius, andwith the band which held them together undone; these when bound surmounted by the cross, to symbolize the Christian world.form the symbol of Concord. 7. Charles I Charles I DismountedDismountedAnthony Van Although originally a student of Rubens, Van Dyck movedDyck. from Antwerp to Genoa, and later to London (as court painterC. 1635.to Charles I) so as not to be overshadowed by hisOil oninternationally famous teacher.canvas. Van Dyck developed a courtly manner of great elegance, and9 x 12specialized in dramatic portraits. In this painting, the English king Charles I stands in thecountryside, with the River Thames (pronounced Temz)behind (which runs through London). Attended by two servants, the portrait is a stylish image ofrelaxed authority, as if the king is out for a casual ride in thepark, but no one can mistake the regal poise and the air ofabsolute authority. Although Charles stands off center, the composition isbalanced by the sideways glance to the viewer. Charles I believed in the divine right of kings to rule (god-given power and authority). Unfortunately, his self-confidencelead to his death. The English Parliament had him beheaded for variousoverreaches of power before his 50th birthday. 8. Louis XIV Louis XIV, the Sun King, was a master of political strategy and propaganda. Louis XIVHe crafted a relationship with the nobility, granting them sufficient benefits Hyacintheto keep them pacified, while maintaining rigorous control to avoid rebellion. Rigaud. Louis believed his power was given to him by divine right (as Gods will),1701.making it incontestable. Oil oncanvas. Louis and his principal adviser, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, cultivated a public92 x 63.persona, and commissioned great monuments to the kings absolute power. Louis and Colbert sought to standardize taste and establish the classicalstyle as the preferred French manner. Louis founded the Royal Academy ofPainting and Sculpture in 1648 to advance this goal (along with otheracademies of various disciplines). Louis maintained a workshop of artists, each with a specialization (i.e. faces,fabric, architecture, fur, armor, etc.), but his most famous portrait is by asingle artist Rigaud. Although the king was only 5 4 (the reason he invented the high-heeledshoes he is sporting), Rigaud painted him from below, so the king appears tolook down upon the viewer. Coupled with the angle, the pose (hand on hip,ermine robe loose on his shoulder) communicates haughtiness. Although 63 at the time of this painting, Louis shows off his legs because hewas a ballet dancer in his youth, and was proud of his well-toned legs. The sumptuous surroundings also communicate wealth and power. 9. Louvre, East FaadeEast Faade of the LouvreClaude Perrault, Louis Le Vau, & Charles Le Brun. Louis and Colberts first architectural project was the closing of Paris, France, c. 1670.the east side of the Louvres quadrilateral Cour Carr (leftincomplete in the 16th century). Bernini was summoned to present a design, but his designinvolved razing the entirety of the Louvre to create a hugecomplex, and was rejected. Louis then turned to three French architects, who designed asynthesis of French and Italian classical elements, creating a newformula. The faade has a central and two corner projecting columnarpavilions res