WEAPON & AMMUNITION
The trend in the warfare decides the trends in weapon & armament developments. Armament is a mechanism that enables warfighters to inflict damage to enemy targets to a degree that will inhibit the enemys ability to engage in the further act of warfare. Weapon is any means by which one contends against another.
DOMINATED BY MUSCULAR POWERDOMINATED BY TECHNOLOGY
WEAPON DEVELOPMENTHuman endeavors.Biological inspirationLearning from the Animal WorldSensing, Learning and Reasoning Capabilities: Smart & IntelligentAlert even when not Active: Sleep ModeAdaptation, Camouflage and ConcealmentCommunicationsCooperative BehaviourCommon GoalIndividual / Team Work BehaviourIntra Group CommunicationBattlefield environment & Target developments.Doctrinal and other influencesAvailability of technology with in the country Political and Social DevelopmentsGlobal and National Policies and TreatiesSelf Reliance, Globalisation of Technology SourcesLegality, Ethical consideration, etcTechnology evolution/ revolution process.Amalgamation of Technology with Engineering.
CHARACTERISTIC WEAPONAdaptation to accelerated pace of military operations.Applications at all places. Increased target damage capability.Higher life cycle to encounter futuristic threats.
WEAPON SYSTEM REQUIREMENTWEAPON DYNAMICSThe ability to launch a weapon with sufficient energy and structural stability for it to reach its intended target.
WEAPON CONTROLThe ability to guide a weapon from the launch point to its intended end point.
TARGET DEFEATThe ability of the weapon, when delivered to its intended end point, to inflict required degree of damage to its target.
WEAPON IN OPERATION
ELEMENTS OF WEAPON SYSTEMProjectile/ Payload/ Warhead/ Kill MechanismKinetic Energy, Chemical Energy, Electro-magnetic EnergyTrajectory/ Flight path/ Ballistic/ DynamicsUnguided, GuidedPropulsionImpulse Based (Gun), Reaction Based (Rocket)LauncherTube, Rail, PodPlatformLand, Sea, Air, Space, BuriedSensor, Control & GuidanceFire Control SystemsSurveillance & Target AcquisitionFixed TgtSatellite, IntelligenceEmitting TgtEarly Warning SystemsMobile TgtVisual, EO&IR, Radar, MMW, Acoustic, Seismic, Magnetic, Electro Magnetic, Laser
Aero dynamics BallisticsChemical EngineeringComputer ScienceElectrical EngineeringElectronicsExplosive ScienceGun TechnologyInstrumentationMaterial ScienceMathematicsMechanical Engineering
MechatronicsModern physics Model/Simulation Studies Opto-electronicsProduction Technology Propulsion TechnologyRapid prototypingSpace ScienceStructural EngineeringVirtual RealityOthers
TECHNOLOGIES INVOLVED IN WEAPON SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
Weapon and Ammunition are two complementary and derivative systems.The design and operational features are derived from the capabilities and limitations of both of them.An effective weapon system will have an optimal match of both the weapon and ammunition characteristics.
AMMUNITIONWEAPON AND AMMUNITIONWEAPON
ANY WEAPON SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT PLAN SHOULD ESSENTIALLY LOOK INTO ASPECTS OF BOTH WEAPON AND AMMUNITION ABILITIES.
Various Types of Ammunition
Introduction to AmmunitionMunition is anything that can be used in warAny munition of warDefensive or OffensiveShot or ShellExplosive, Smoke, Chemical, Incendiary, Pyrotechnic, InertTraining, Practice, DrillAmmunition is the generic term for all devices from aPistol bullet to a high velocity KE antitank projectileHand thrown grenade (25m) to a artillery shell (>40km)Illuminating rocket to an intercontinental ballistic missileA device charged with explosives, propellant, pyrotechnic, initiating composition or nuclear, biological or chemical material for use in connection with offence or defence, including demolitionIt includes ammunitions used for training, ceremonial or non-operational purposes
Historical BackgroundRequirement of ammunitionMans need to kill, either to feed himself or to protect himselfAmmunition projectionTo overcome the problem of distance between himself and his quarryTo put distance between himself and his adversaryThrow of simple missiles: Stones, SpearsDependant on strength of each individual manBows and slings: Increased Range and Hitting or Stopping PowerDevelopment of simple mechanical devices to store energyCatapulta, Ballista, CrossbowHeavier and larger missiles thrown with Greater force over a Longer rangeExplosive projection: GunpowderRefinement of gunpowder in thirteenth century, revolutionised the concepts of warfare and changed the strategies and tacticsIndustrial revolution in eighteenth and nineteenth century provided necessary impetus for the development of explosivesManufacture of high explosives: Beginning of conventional modern warfare
Introduction to Ammunition
Purpose of AmmunitionTo provide a required target effect at a selected targetInteraction with the targetPurpose of interaction: Offensive, Defensive or PracticeCategories of AmmunitionReach up to target: CE AmmunitionReach on target: KE AmmunitionBurst after target: Bunker bursting, Runway burstingMeans of delivering ammunitionThrown by hand or non explosive mechanical means Explosive projection: Gun, MortarSelf propulsion: Guided and unguided Rockets, TorpedoesHand placed: Demolition chargeLeft to be initiated remotely orby the target itself: Mines, Booby traps
Introduction to Ammunition
TargetIt is an object or part of it whose intended functionality is to be defeatedDamage
Harm / injury toFunctionalityValueComfortSafetyServiceabilityDefeat of TargetEnergy Input in excess of what can be dissipated by the targetMagnitude, Rate of TransferKill mechanismsKE, Blast, Fragmentation, P Charge (EFP) , Shaped Charge (Hollow Charge)Lasers, Information, Non LethalSources of EnergyKinetic EnergyChemical Energy
Introduction to Ammunition
What is ammunition?Ammunition is that part of munition which interacts with the target to give the desired target effect.
Part of Munition : Functional and operational characteristics of launcher and ammunition are interdependent.Purpose of Interaction : Offensive, Defensive, Practice and DrillTarget : Object whose functionalities are to be dysfunctionedTarget Effect: Damage Level on target
PEOPLEMANNED AND UNMANNED VEHICLES ARMOURED VEHICLESSTRUCTURESEQUIPMENTAIRBORNE SYSTEMSSURFACE AND UNDER WATER SYSTEMSBURIED SYSTEMSSPACE BASED SYSTEMS
ATTACK MECHANISM HOW MUCH? HOW FAST?BY TRANSFER OF ENERGY TO TARGETTARGET DAMAGE*
3D computation of a bullet impacting a ceramic-metal targetThe ceramic (AlN) is on the top and the metal (Al) is on the bottom. The projectile impacts at a 45-degree obliquity. The computation shows the complex fracture pattern that occurs from impact and penetration. DAMAGE EVOLUTION
DAMAGE EVOLUTIONPath of an unstable projectile in soap
KILL MECHANISMS BLASTFRAGMENTATIONHOLLOW CHARGEKINETIC ENERGYNON - LETHALDIRECTED ENERGYINFORMATION
Well Known Classification of HE ChargesBlast charge
According to the mode of operation, broadly grouped in to 3 basic types of high explosive (HE) charges :Fragmentation charge
Energy transmitted through shock waves.Energy transmitted through fragments of metal casing.Energy transmitted through metal jet.
KILL MECHANISMSFragmentationHollow ChargeKinetic Energy
Kinetic EnergyEnergy derived by virtue of its motionRequirement of secondary source of energy: PropellantDissipates energy on impact: Positive interaction with targetDoes not require a triggering device to control the energy release: No fuzeAlways armed: No safety and arming mechanismDirect fire only
Chemical EnergyEnergy released by virtue of chemical bonding / reaction of Explosive substance: Has considerable potential energy relative to its massPrimary source of energyNo requirement of positive interaction with targetEnergy released when suitably initiated: Fuze - Trigger mechanismArmed after a safe distanceCan be used in indirect fire
CHOICE OF AMMUNITION
AMMUNITION PROJECTILESKinetic Energy ProjectileChemical Energy Projectile
AMMUNITION AND KILL MECHANISM
Essentials of AmmunitionProjectileSolidShellPayloadPropellantPrimerPropellant ContainerCased ChargeBagged Charge
PRINCIPLES OF AMMUNITION FUNCTIONINGBurstingEmissionEjectionProjectionPenetration
FILLINGS USED IN AMMUNITIONHigh ExplosivePyrotechnicSmokeSignalIlluminatingFlareIncendiaryPropagandaNon lethalElectronicDecoyJammerNBCPractice or Drill
Ammunition Design ConsiderationsIt should be able to withstand the conditions due to launch environmentStrength of DesignBore SafetyIt should be able to reach to the targetProjectile AerodynamicsProjectile DynamicsTrajectory, Range, Stability etcIt should be able to damage the targetEnd Game KinematicsTarget InteractionKill Mechanism Formation
Pressure- Space curve
Forces acting on a projectile while FiringAny setup after firing is a critical defect
Projectile DynamicsTrajectory path described by c.g.Projectil