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AP English Absolutism

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Text of AP English Absolutism

  • 1. EnglishAbsolutism

2. Absolutism

  • a form of monarchical power that is unrestrained by any other institutions, such as churches, legislatures, or social elites

3. JamesI

  • Stuart (not a Tudor)
  • King of Scotland
  • Nephew of Elizabeth I
  • Son of Mary Stuart
  • Initially agreed to rule according to English law and customs
  • Kept Parliament involved
  • Until divine right

4. Tensions with Parliament

  • Disagreements about money
    • Lavish lifestyle
    • Wars
    • Taxes
  • Disagreements about foreign policy
  • James solutiondissolve Parliament

5. Religious Tensions

  • The Puritans wanted:
    • To purify the Church of England of Catholic practices
    • Simpler services
    • More democratic church with no powerful bishops
  • James I rejected their demands
  • Chased them out of England

6. CharlesI

  • r. 1625-1649
  • inherited the throne from his father, James I
  • Like his father, he ruled as an absolute monarch
    • Bickered with Parliament
    • Imprisoned enemies without trial
    • Ran the nation into further debt

7. CharlesIvs. Parliament

  • Debt from:
    • Super-luxurious lifestyle
    • War with France
  • Needed moneycalled for Parliament to convene
  • Parliament refused to fork over any money until Charles I signed thePetition of Right

8. Petition of Right

  • No funds could be borrowed or raised through taxes & tariffs without the explicit approval of Parliament

9. Petition of Right

  • 2. Habeas Corpus: No free person (Britain had slavery at this time) could be imprisoned without a reason

10. The Deal

  • Charles I signed thePetition , thereby agreeing to its terms (and getting his $$)
  • Did Charles have any intention of keeping his word?

11. Dissolution of Parliament

  • Charles immediately broke his word
  • To avoid a confrontation with Parliament, he dissolved it (would stay dissolved for 12 years)
  • Now on his ownwith no funds from Parliament

12. Charles Budget Cuts

  • Made peace with enemies (peace is cheaper than war)
  • Downsized government administration
  • Innovative tax increases
  • One goal in mindrule without Parliament

13. CharlesIand Religion

  • Charles persecuted the Puritans
  • Allowed the Archbishop of Canterbury (William Laud) to freely take any measures to stifle the Puritans

14. Puritans Under CharlesI

  • Forbidden to publish or preach
  • Scottish Puritans were forced to use the Church of Englands prayer books, rituals, hierarchy, etc
  • Rebellion occurred, thus forcing Charles to reconvene Parliament

15. Twelve Years to Stew

  • Parliament - ready to show Charles no mercy
  • Refused Charles any money until he addressed a very long list of complaints
  • What do you think Charles did??

16. Buh-Bye Parliament

  • Charles I refused their demands and dismissed them (AprilMay 1640 - known as The Short Parliament)
  • Still, he was without money
  • Reconvened Parliament again, but this time agreed to their demands (would become the Long Parliament as it would remain until 1660)

17. Parliaments Demands

  • Illegal to raise taxes without Parliament okay
  • William Laud impeached & executed
  • Charles centralized bureaucracy abolished
  • Law that only Parliament could dismiss itself
  • Law that Parliament had to meet every 3 years

18. Rebellion in Ireland

  • Religious radicals in Ireland rebelled
  • Charles I wanted funds for an army to go in
  • Parliament did not trust Charles I with an army
  • Proposal from radicals in Parliament the army should be under Parliaments control

19. One Angry King

  • Charles not very happy about this
  • Stormed Parliament with his own army
  • Parliament issued Militia Ordinance which officially declared the army under Parliaments control
  • The result????

20. The English Civil War 21. Cavaliers & Roundheads

  • Cavaliers = Supporters of King Charles I
  • Wealthy nobles
  • Wore plumed hats
  • Fashionably long hair
  • Well trained in dueling & warfare
  • Expected a quick win

22. Cavaliers &Roundheads

  • Roundheads = Supporters of Parliament
    • Divide within: Independents vs. Presbyterians
  • Country gentry, town- dwelling manufacturers, & Puritan clergy
  • Called Roundheads b/c of their hair style
  • Underdogs
  • Leader Oliver Cromwell

23. Oliver Cromwell

  • Puritan, gentry, military genius
  • Organized New Model Army into a skilled force
  • Defeated Cavaliers

24. Cromwells Worries

  • New religious sects = trouble (overturn social hierarchy)
    • Quakers, Diggers, Ranters & Seekers all promoted inner light and equality
    • Fear of potential skepticism, anarchy & debauchery
  • The King
    • Independents purged Presbyterians in Parliament (The Rump Parliament)
    • Rump created high courtput Charles I on trial

25. The Execution of a King

  • Found guilty
  • Sentenced to death as a tyrant, traitor, murderer, and public enemy

26. Life Under Puritan Rule

  • After Charles Is execution, Rump Parliament abolished :
    • The monarchy
    • The House of Lords
    • The Church of England
  • Cromwell established a Puritan Republic

27. Religion Under Cromwell

  • Allowed various Puritan sects to worship
  • Permitted Jews with needed skills to return
  • Catholics not permitted to worship publicly
  • Anglicans not permitted to use the Book of Common Prayer

28. Cromwell at War

  • Re-conquered Scottish
  • Subdued Ireland
    • crushed Irish rebellions
    • massacred whole garrisons & their priests
    • exiled Catholics to remote parts of Ireland
  • Laid foundation for a Great Britain
  • Waged naval war against the Dutch (1652-1654)
  • Wars = budget 2x that of Charles I

29. Life Under Cromwell

  • Increased property taxes & customs duties
  • 1653: abolished Rump Parliament in coup made himself Lord Protector
  • Censored the press
  • Forbade sports & closed theaters
  • Used spies to read mail & watch enemies

30. Cromwells Death

  • Died in 1658
  • There were none that cried but dogs. John Evelyn, Diarist
  • Buried in Westminster Abbey
  • 1661: body exhumed cut off head & displayed outside Westminster Hall for nearly 20 years!

31. End of the Commonwealth

  • Puritans lost control of England
  • 1660: New Anglican Parliament invited Charles II back as King
  • Charles II met with cheering crowds

32. CharlesII

  • Idolized Louis XIV
  • Religiously tolerant
  • Accepted Petition of Right
  • Not long until he tried to re-establish royal authority

33. Catastrophe Strikes

  • May 1665: Plague hits London
  • Over 30,000 dead by September
  • 1666: The Great Fire of London 3 days

34. 35. CharlesII& Parliament

  • Tensions over religion P. concerned w/ successor (James II openly Cath.)
  • P. passed the Test Act (1673) all govt officials must take oath to Church of England & disavow Catholic doctrine
  • 1678: P. explicitly denied throne to a Roman Catholic

36. Tories vs. Whigs

  • Crisis over succession = 2 factions
    • Tories supported:
      • strong hereditary monarchy
      • restored ceremony of the Anglican church

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