- 1. Race/Gender/Environment Are Mutually Constituted S. Paulson, Lund University
- This class will challenge assumption common in popular discourse and in much scholarship
- 1. race is determined by geneology and morphology
- 2. gender is determined by sexual dimorphism
- 3. environment is the natural stage on which human actions and interactions play out
2. Environmental Justice Environmental Racism
- Environmental racism refers to the enactment or enforcement of any policy, practice, or regulation that negatively affects the environment of low-income or racially homogeneous communities at a disparate rate than affluent communities.
- United States of America Environmental Justice Group. National Conference of State Legislatures. Environmental Justice: A Matter of Perspective. 1995
3. Racialized environmental conflict and emerging political subjectivities in Latin America 4. 1. Latin America: 1500- 1900 struggles over access and control of environment inform and are justified by emerging racial ideologies. 2. 20 thcentury modern development and the disappearance of Indians 3. Starting in 1990s, surge of interrelated environmental conflicts and racialized identities 4. Dawn of 21 stcentury, new subjectivities with environmental justice and indigenous / afro identities 5. How does this push and motivate us to rethink conventional notions of environment and of race? 5. (1) For several centuries people of European heritage have striven for privileged access to use and shape environments across the Americas. People labeled as indian and negro have resisted in many ways, and generally lost access and control, been displaced from their environments, and lived in environments that have been penetrated and polluted by mining, drilling, logging, plantations, urbanization. 6. AAA statement on race In the United States both scholars and the general public have been conditioned to viewing human races as natural and separate divisions within the human species based on visible physical differences 7. Different statements about race:Race is NOT a biological reality. Race is a worldview featuring a myth about biology. Race is a historically specific sociocultural system manifest in legislation, economy, education, residence patterns, kinship, bodies, and of course, environments. 8. Critical Race Theory: An Introduction Environmental Injustices, Political Struggles: Race, Class and the Environment Whitewashing Race: The Myth of a Color-Blind Society Uproar at Dancing Rabbit Creek: The Battle over Race, Class and Environment in the New South Jews, Race, and Environment Aboriginal Connections to Race, Environment and Traditions We Speak for Ourselves: Social Justice, Race and Environment Dumping In Dixie: Race, Class, And Environmental Quality A City Transformed: Redevelopment, Race, and Suburbanization in Lancaster Algeria in France: Transpolitics, Race, and NationRace et HistoireLa Nacion y Sus Otros: Raza, Etnicidad y Diversidad Religiosa En Tiempos de Politicas de La IdentidadImmigrants at the Margins: Law, Race, and Exclusion in Southern EuropeRoma And Gypsy - Travellers In Europe: Modernity, Race, Space And ExclusionThe Color of Liberty: Histories of Race in France Reproducing the French Race: Immigration, Intimacy, and Embodiment in the Early Twentieth Century Races on Display: French Representations of Colonized Peoples, 1886-1940 The Trouble With Black Boys: And Other Reflections on Race, Equity, and the Future of Public Education Race after Hitler: Black Occupation Children in Postwar Germany and America Race and Ethnic Relations: American and Global Perspectives Defenders of the Race: Jewish Doctors and Race Science in Fin-de-Siecle Europe Essai Sur l'ingalit Des Races Humaines Ruling Passions: Sex, Race and Empire White Like Me: Reflections on Race from a Privileged Son Race, Class, & Gender: An Anthology Race, Incarceration, and American Values (Boston Review Books) Race, Class, and Gender in the United States: An Integrated Study Unequal Childhoods: Class, Race, and Family Life Courageous Conversations About Race: A Field Guide for Achieving Equity in Schools Race, Ethnicity, and Health: A Public Health Reader Gender, Race, and Class in Media: A Text-Reader Bringing the Empire Home: Race, Class, and Gender in Britain and Colonial South Africa Race, Ethnicity, and Health: A Public Health Reader The Social Construction of Difference and Inequality: Race, Class, Gender and Sexuality 9. (2)In the context of 20 thcentury modern development: many observers---from scholars to political leaders to National Geographic magazinedeclared that Indians were disappearing. 10. Given their advantage in force, it is not surprising that aspects of the colonizers value systems have become hegemonic, so that the stigma attached long ago by Europeans to Indianness has worked its way into Indian self-consciousness as well.Consequently, self-proclaimed Indians are exceedingly scarce (Thomas Abercrombie 1992:96). 11. The body, in Andean thinking, is an object built up over time. As it ingests, digests, and expels substances from the world around it, it provides its owner an identity drawn from worldly substances. Body and identity thus originate in the intimate physical relationship between persons and their social milieu.Cholas and Pishtacos: Stories of Race and Sex in the Andes , Mary Weistmantel,2001:91. 12. (3) Starting in 1990s,Latin America has been shaken byan explosion of environmental conflicts in which people engaged in struggles over natural resource use and environmental governance often explicitly identify themselves as indigenous and/or afro. 13. (4) At the dawn of 21 stcentury,a new type of political action and subjectivityis emerging in which environmental justice is mutually constituted withindigenous and afro identities. 14. I explore issues of authenticity, legal discourse, and local requirements of belonging by considering the recent surge of indigenous recognitions in northeastern Brazil.I investigate how race and ethnicity are implicated in the recognition process in Brazil on the basis of an analysis of a successful struggle for indigenous identity and access to land by a group of mixed-race, visibly African-descended rural workers.Jan Hoffman French 2004: 663 15. Motivated by new legal rights, access to land, and the possibility of improvements in their standard of living, residents of Mocambo embarked on a campaign to gain quilombo recognition, even though it would mean identification with a -derided category associated with oppression and slaverynegro.Jan Hoffman French 2006: 341. 16. the upsurge of indigenous self-identification, illustrated by the people who would become the Xoc, is not just about (or not necessarily at all about) Indianness but is more fundamentally about political subjectivities forged in the struggle for land that, when tied to claims of indigenous identity, result in communities of likeness.Jan Hoffman French 2004: 664 17. Making race through human-environment relations
- Groups of people in Brazil that share many physical and cultural characteristics are engaged in struggles for control of natural resources that variously make them act, feel and self-identify as:
- More linked to African slaves
- Less linked to African slaves
18. "When a woman is hoeing potatoes in her field she is a campesina, but when she goes to the city to sell her potatoes she is a chola" [ campesinaandcholaare racial/ethnic identity labels] 19. Thetransportistais due at six to load the potatoes. If he thinks I am some dirty Indian he'll cheat me in the portion of potatoes he takes in exchange for transporting my cargo." 20. Dominant discourses
- Global discourses on womens rights and indigenous rights make women and indian universal categories, decontextualized from any environmental practice or meaning.
- Academic structures and disciplines divorce the study of racial/ethnic/gender identities from the study of environment.
21. MAN WOMAN WHITEBLACK STRAIGHT GAY 22. Fetishism: Value inheres in the individual commodity, rather than coming from the socio-economic system, Race inheres in the individual human body, rather than coming from the socio-economic system. 23. Corresponds with fetishism discussed by Estebe in the conference
- 1. encapsulates natural/social input into a commodity, making invisible the ecostystems and socio-cultures that produce and shape it.
- 2. imposes a single language of valuation.
- 3. mystifies (justifies) unequal relations of exchange and access to natural resources.
24. GENDER A cultural system that organizes and gives meaning to our bodies, our actions and interactions, and the world around us with symbolic reference to sex and sexuality. RACEA specific type of ideology and social system that developed in 18 th , 19 thcenturies in conjunction with scientific ideas about biological determinism, and that coexists with diverse forms and dynamics of ethnicity. 25. Global Discourse about Rights and IdentityInternational Convention on the Elimination of All Forms ofRacialDiscrimination, United Nations 1969 International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination againstWomen , United Nations 1979 ILO Convention 169 onIndigenousand Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries, 1989 26. *Raises visibility for certain individuals and groups* Facilitates politics of rights and recognition * Divides local experience into western categories *Promotes identity essentialism*Contributes to divisions amongst potentially solidary individuals and groups 27. "We have walked for a mont