Recognizing logical fallacies and emotional appeals

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  • 1. Propaganda:Recognizing Logical Fallaciesand Emotional AppealsEnglish 101

2. What is persuasion? The process ofguiding people towardthe adoption of anidea, action, orattitude. Often it is illogical andmanipulative. Got Milk?2 3. Advertisers Advertisers spend about $200 billion ayear on advertisements The average cost for a Super Bowl ad is$2.6 million per 30 second spot The average American watches about24,000 commercials a year.3 4. Introduction to Logical Fallacies What is a logical fallacy? Logical = something that is reasonable Fallacy = something that is faulty Thus, a logical fallacy is an argumentbased on faulty logic 4 5. "Hey, why are we learning how to reason incorrectly?" Its called logical self-defense! Do you believeeverything you read,hear, and see?5 6. "Hey, why are we learning how to reason incorrectly?" You cant alwaysbelieve what youhear, what yousee, and what youread. You should havethe knowledge toidentify whenpeople are tryingto manipulate/persuade you.6 7. Circular Reasoning Occurs when you try to prove astatement by simply repeating itin different words Example 1: Our basketball team,the Cougars, should capture theregional title because the teamdeserves to be number one. Example 2: Mr. Smiths dramaclub attracts a large number ofstudents because manystudents come to the dramaclub.7 8. Overgeneralization/Stereotyping Occurs when a statement istoo broad to be valid and caneasily be disproved. Overgeneralizations are oftenindicated by the followingwords: everyone, no one,always, never, best, and worst. Example 1: Everyone wholives in the Southern stateslikes warm weather. Example 2: Men will alwaysvote for a male presidentialcandidate over a female one.8 9. Either/or fallacy Occurs when there is aclaim that there are only twochoices when there areactually more Example 1: Either we raisenew taxes, or the roads willbecome unusable. Example 2: Either we builda new school, or it will bedestroyed in three years. 9 10. False Analogy Relying only oncomparisons to prove apoint, rather than arguingdeductively and inductively. Example: Education is likecake; a small amounttastes sweet, but eat toomuch and your teeth will rotout. Likewise, more thantwo years of education isbad for a student. The analogy is onlyacceptable to the degreethat the reader/listenerthinks education is likecake.10 11. Cause-and-effect fallacy Occurs when the writerassumes that because oneevent follows another, the firstevent caused the second. Example 1: A new mayor waselected in November, and as aresult, crime went down inJanuary. Notice: Just because crimewent down after the newmayor was elected, it doesntmean that he directlyinfluenced the decrease incrime. 11 12. Product Comparison/Card stacking Features acomparison betweenproduct andcompetition, oftenportraying thecompetition as beinginferior. Often uses cardstacking, which iswithholding,pertinent, informationto persuade theviewer 12 13. Emotional Appeals The term refers to manipulating someoneby targeting their emotions and feelings. For example, the ad can make viewersfeel happy, sad, angry, fearful, etc. However, in the end, the advertiser wantsto get across the point that BUYINGSOMETHING WILL MAKE THE VIEWERFEEL BETTER. Emotional appeals also refer to the term,13PATHOS 14. Want to feel happy? 14 15. Appeal to Fear This technique isvery popularamong politicalparties in the U.S.The idea is topresent a dreadedcircumstance andusually followed itup with the kind ofbehavior needed toavoid that horrible15event. 16. Namecalling Attacking a person or groupin order to discredit an ideawith which the person orgroup is associated. Itserves to distract the readerfrom the real issue. Example: Barack Obamastaffer, Samantha Power,called Hillary Clinton a"monster." Example: Harry Trumancalled Republicans a bunchof "snolly-gusters" in 1952. Example: Pres. McKinleysopponent said he had the"backbone of a chocolateeclair."16 17. Bandwagon The name comes fromthe phrase "Jump onthe bandwagon," abandwagon being awagon big enough tohold a band ofmusicians. In past politicalcampaigns, a candidatewould ride on a wagonaround town and peoplewould literally jump onthe wagon to showsupport. 17 18. Bandwagon cont. Capitalizes on the fun of being part of acrowd and the desire to be sociallyaccepted. In other words, if its popular, it must becorrect! Example 1: Dont be the last to get thenew Rockin Robots video game! Example 2: Join everyone else who isbuying an IBM computer!18 19. Snob appeal Arouses the desire toachieve status orwealth to feel superior19 20. Appeal to Pity Showing an image ortelling a story whichmakes thereader/viewer feelthat they should "actnow" and do/buysomething to makethem feel happier 20 21. Transfer Shows an additionalimage with theproduct or person thatis intended to createpositive or negativeemotions for theviewer 21 22. Plain Folks (a type of testimonial) Used images ofpeople typical of the"target" of the ad,communicating themessage that "we arealike" and "I/we" usethis product, so youshould too. 22 23. Celebrity and expert endorsement (both are types of testimonials An appeal to an improper authority, such as a famous person. This fallacy attempts to capitalize upon feelings of respect or familiarity with a famous individual. For expert endorsement, this refers to the consumer relying on scientists, doctors, etc. to give them advice Ex: 9 out of 10 dentists23 choose 24. Bait-and-switch Form of fraud, mostcommonly used inretail stores Customers are"baited" by anadvertised lowerprice or new product,and when thecustomer discoversthe advertised goodis not available, theyare "switched" to amore costly product. 24 25. Loaded Language When used properly, emotional languagecan add depth to writing thats meant topersuade; however, the misuse of loadedlanguage can cloud factual information,disguise poor reasoning, or unfairlymanipulate peoples emotions in order toshape their opinions. 25 26. Loaded Language PositiveNegative Consists of stronglypositive or negativePlanSchemeconnotations,intended to influence Prosperous Loadedan audiencesattitude. Leisurely Lazy Connotation:HonestBluntEmotions andattitudes suggestedAssertive Aggressiveby a word. 26 27. Loaded Language In advertising, words with positive connotationsare called GLITTERING GENERALITIES (OR PURRWORDS) Examples: golden, mother, home, delightful,scrumptious, and success Words with negative connotations are called SNARL WORDS Examples: ugly, unsightly, wrinkles, dirt Words that are qualifiers, unclear, and purposelyused to mislead are called WEASEL WORDS 27 Examples: almost, virtually, and close to 28. What emotional appeal is beingused here? LoadedLanguage 28 29. What logical fallacy is being used here? Plain Folks/Testimonial29 30. What emotional appeal is beingused here? Transfer 30 31. What logical fallacy is being used here?Loaded Language /Glittering Generalities31 32. What emotional appeal is beingused here? Testimonial 32 33. Which emotional appeal is beingused here? Note: There is nothingtelling exactly how muchof the money you sendwill be going to thechildren. Appeal to pity33 34. What emotional appeal is beingused here?Bandwagon 34 35. What type of logical fallacy is being used here? Stereotyping/Overgeneralization35 36. What emotional appeal is beingused here? Bandwagon 36 37. What emotional appeal is beingused here? Plain Folks 37 38. What emotional appeal is beingused here? Appeal to Fear 38 39. Which type of propaganda isbeing used here? Bait-and-switch39 40. Which type of emotional appeal is being used here? Snob appeal 40

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