Paul Buchanan

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  • 1. Traffic in Towns & Transport in CitiesSTEP, Edinburgh November 2013 Paul Buchanan

2. Structure Colin Buchanan Traffic in Towns Transport in Cities 3. Early days Buchanan & Halcrow Maps/town planning Road Engineer, Exeter Safety 8,000 road deaths p/a in 1930s less than 2,000 now 4. In the war Bridge over the River Nile Juba, S SudanDemobilisation leave RIBA 5. Petrol Head and Environmentalist? Cars the ultimate go anywhere, at any time, with anything, transport machines Nothing is quite so pleasurable as driving a powerful car slowly There is a great deal at stake, conserving, in the face of the onslaught of motor traffic, a major part of the heritage of the English speaking world 6. Rebel? Union activist? First Division civil servants vs professionals temperamentally unsuited to planning (!) Moved to The Inspectorate Roskill Commission Note of Dissent Did not accept the results of the cost-benefit analysis never trusted economists at all Certainly not afraid to stick with his convictions 7. Traffic in Towns Framework Right and wrong Legacy 8. Traffic in Towns Framework 1. Transport a function of land use origins & destinations 2. Major roads separated from environmental areas 3. Environmental standards imply absolute limits to traffic 4. Accessibility Cost Environment 5. Environmental management as well as civil engineering solutions 9. Recommendations & Options One recommendation the sooner attention paid to the adverse environmental effects of motor trafficthe better for the nation Rest of report devoted to the choices available to authorities. We did not choose for them! 10. Right and Wrong? Right?Wrong?FrameworkTitle public transport?ForecastsTitle towns?Trade-offs and OptionsTraffic segregationPresentationEnvironmental Areas 11. Legacy Conclusions Generations of UK transport planners Transport Planning a UK industry? Incredible longevity the analytical framework & policy choices much the same today 12. INTRODUCING TRANSPORT IN CITIES 13. Transport in Cities If how to cope with future traffic growth was the key issue of the last 50 years, what are the key issues now? Urbanisation growing rapidly Technology changing fast Economic drivers, environmental constraints Outward sprawl of cities Ageing populations Internationalisation 14. How do we deal with those questions? Fixed land use Straight line growth forecasts Transport valued almost entirely in time savings Policy objectives fixed 15. UK transport 1900-1970Predict and provide is not as easy as you might think! 16. Growth of Mobility in France Distance Travelled per Day per Capita (Grubler, 1990) 100,000TGV AirTwo-wheeler Horses Waterways1,000Rail Cars & buses100All modes Trend 200019501900185010 1800METRES10,000 17. Behavioural Issues Time SavingsSafety KMsHOURSTRIPS 18. New TechnologyQuality of PlaceDriverless vehicles Personal Rapid Transit Demand Responsive Transport Real Time InformationHow can transport make cities nicer places to live and work? What is that worth?TransportPolicy Support Infrastructure is not enough! Policy support across planning, taxation, charging, environment is vitalEconomyTransport In CitiesPeak Car? Urbanisation Wifi connectivity Walk/cycle Shared spaceEnvironmentEnvironmentEconomic Drivers Agglomeration & Density Transport Efficiency Flexibility Investment costs Operating subsidy/profitGlobal TrendsLand Use Transport & Land Use Land use sets transport demand, but transport also sets land use with road & rail producing v different development patternsCarbon Global Warming Air Quality Health active transport 19. Scenarios for Air Quality/EmissionsNegativePositiveUrbanisation More congestion for more peopleTechnology Fuel efficiency Autonomous vehicles Electrically poweredSprawl More car dependencyPolicy Tools Road Pricing Travel Demand Management Active travelHealth Health issues may be bigger than we thinkEconomic Drivers Quality of Place Density 20. Conclusions Traffic in Towns remarkably insightful and longstanding Framework for thinking about the issues rather than an answer Still relevant 50 years on Transport in Cities Im on a hiding to nothing! 21. Thank you