Research Papers 2009-2010Ms. Emili
Have you everCopied and pasted text from a website without quoting/citing the author?Summarized an authors work by changing a word or two
Definition:Plagiarism is: the unauthorized use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one's own original work (dictionary.com)
Two types of plagiarismIntentionalCopying a friends workCutting and pasting blocks of textMedia borrowingUnintentionalCareless paraphrasingPoor documentationQuoting excessivelyFailure to use your own voice
Excuses weve heardIts ok if I dont get caught!Everyone does it!I was too busy to write that paper!My teachers expect too much!
Just dont do it: reasons whyMajor consequences (grades)Easier to catch than you think!What are you actually learning?Unethical
Possible School Consequences:0 on the assignmentParents notifiedDamaged reputationHS/college: possible suspension/expulsion
How do I avoid plagiarism?
Cite as you goCareful note-takingQuotingParaphrasingSummarizing
Keeping track of your sourcesWrite down as much as you can BEFORE moving on to next sourceTitle, author, publication city and year, web address, etc.Set up a labeling system: A1, A2, B1, B2
QuotingQuotations: exact words of an author, copied word for word. MUST be citedUse them when:Power of the authors words to supportHighlight eloquent passagesDisagreeing with an argumentDONT quote when:You could easily restate in your own wordsBe careful not to over-use
ParaphrasingRephrasing the words of an author, putting his/her thoughts in your own wordsRework the sources words, phrases, sentence structures with YOUR OWNChanging one or two words is NOT paraphrasing!
Paraphrase whenYou could easily restate information in your own words
You want to avoid overusing quotations
SummarizingPutting an authors/several authors ideas into your own wordsSignificantly shorter than the original idea or quotation
Summarize whenEstablishing background information or giving an overview of a topic
Giving the main ideas of one source
As you take notes:Use quotation marks for direct quotes or unique phrases and authors nameMark quotes with a Q
Paraphrase with the authors name Mark paraphrased segments with a PInclude page numbers and source references so you can go back and check
DO NOTCopy text word for word (from a book or copy and paste from online source)Only change one or two words from original textSwitch back and forth between sources without indicating who the author/source is
NO!You DO NOT have to cite:Facts that are widely knowncommon knowledge
Examples of Common KnowledgeThere are 50 states in the U.S.There are 365 days in a yearThe Titanic sunk after hitting an icebergJohn Adams was the second U.S. President
How can you tell?Majority of people know ORCan easily find out from many sourcesEasily findable in an encyclopedia, almanac, state website, dictionary, etc.
Remember:Your teacher knows your work!Your teachers discuss student work with each otherYour teacher checks suspicious work against search engines and other student papersWe expect honesty from our students
First things firstEvaluating info is an essential part of researchJust because a site looks goodDifferences between print and Internet sourcesQuality vs. quantityNot all info is good info
Print vs. online sourcesWho is the author?Authors qualifications?Editing processCurrency
5 Clues to help youTake the time to do a little detective workUse the 5 Clues to help you decide whether to accept or reject info
Clue #1: URLs.com.gov.org.edu.net, or ~ is a PERSONAL webpageAngelfire, Geocities, blogs
Clue #2: AuthorWho are they?Who are they associated with? Bias?What are their CREDENTIALS?If you cant answer these questions, DONT USE THIS SOURCEHint: check About page or Google them
Clue #3: ContentDoes the information SEEM accurate (based on what you know)?Opinion or fact-based?Spelling or grammatical errors?Look and feel of the page/ads?HINT: does the information match what youve found elsewhere? Verify!
Clue #4: CurrencyWhen was the page created?When was it last updated?Do you need time-sensitive info? HINT: Last updated at bottom of page
Clue #5: Links and SourcesAre there links to other sites?Did the author cite their sources?HINT: more info or links
A note on WikipediaWho is the author?No credentials needed- anyone can create/update a pageWhen can I use Wikipedia???As a starting point, not a sourceTo explore a topic before deciding on itUse their external links: still need to evaluate!!