magnetic refrigeration,multi-mode 2/4 stroke internal combustion engine
Text of a seminar report on multi-mode 2/4 stroke internal combustion engine
1 A Seminar On MULTI-MODE 2/4-STROKE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE By Mr. MOHAMMED HUSAIN ESMAIL MASALAWALA Under The Guidance Of Prof. C. P. SHINDE Submitted In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement For Bachelor of Engineering (Mechanical)Degree of University of Pune Department of Mechanical Engineering Late G.N. Sapkal College of Engineering, Anjaneri, Nashik-422212 2013-2014
2 Kalyani Charitable Trusts Late G. N. Sapkal College of Engineering Sapkal Knowledge Hub, Kalyani Hills, Anjaneri, Trimbakeshwar Road, Nashik 422 212, Maharashtra State, India CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Mr. MOHAMMED HUSAIN ESMAIL MASALAWALA has successfully completed his Seminaron the topicMULTI-MODE 2/4-STROKE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE, under the able guidance of Prof. C. P. SHINDEtowards the partial fulfillment ofThird YearofMechanical Engineering as laid down byUniversity of Pune during academic year 2013-14. Prof C.P, Shinde. Prof. T.Y. Badgujar [Seminar Guide] [ H.O.D. Mechanical ] Dr. Basavaraj S. Balapgol [Examiner] Principal
3 CONTENT ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT INDEX Sr. No. Description Page No. 1 Introduction 6 1.1 1.2 1.3 Increase in demand of IC engine Scarcity of Fuel Pollution 6 7 8 2 2.1 Areas Of Interest Power 9 9 3 2.2 2.3 3.1 3.2 3.3 Efficiency Emissions Types Of Engine Suction Ignition Engine Compressed Ignition Engine Homogenous Compressed Charged Engine 10 11 11 11 12 4 3.4 3.5 Hybrid Engine Boosted Engine Concept Of Multi-mode 12 12 13 5 Technological Requirements 18 6 Successive Results 18 7 Field Of Implementations 19 8 Conclusion 21 9 Bibliography 21
4 FIGURE INDEX FIGURE NO. TITLE PAGE NO. 1.1.1 Increasing demand 6 1.2.1 Scarcity of fuel 7 3.1 Working graph 1 13 3.2 Working graph 2 13 7.1 Diesel engine for combat tanks 19 7.2 I F V 19 7.3 Diesel engine for military trucks 20 7.4 Special purpose vehicles 20
5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I take this opportunity to express our deep sense of gratitude and respect towards our guide MR. C. P. SHINDE, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Late G N Sapkal College Of Engineering , NASHIK. I am very much indebted to his for the generosity, expertise and guidance; I have received from him while collecting data on this seminar and throughout our studies. Without his support and timely guidance, the completion of my seminar would have seemed a farfetched dream. In this respect I find ourselves lucky to have his as our guide. He has guided us not only with the subject matter, but also taught us the proper style and technique of working and presentation. It is a great pleasure for me to express my gratitude towards those who are involved in the completion of my seminar report. I whole-heartedly thank to our HOD Mr. T. Y. BADGUJAR for their guidance. I am also indebted to all Sr. Engineers and others who gave me their valuable time and guidance. The various information and sources I used during my report completion find place in my report. I am also grateful to Senior Seminar Coordinators respected sirs. MOHAMMED HUSAIN ESMAIL MASALAWALA III year, VSemister Dept. Of Mechanical Engineering (L.G.N.S.COE, Nashik) Magnetic Refrigeration
6 ABSTRACT In a multi-mode, 2-stroke/4-stroke internal combustionengine operation, by switching the engine stroke from 4-stroke operation to 2-stroke operation so that the combustion frequency is doubled, doubling of the engine power is achieved even at the same work output per cycle. In order to meet the demand of extremely high power, the engine operates in 4-stroke boosted SI operation transitioned from 2-stroke HCCI operation at pre-set level of power and crank speed requirements. By combining the multi-stroke (2-stroke HCCI and 4-stroke HCCI) and multi-mode operation (2-stroke HCCI and 4-stroke boosted SI operation), full load range and overall high efficiency with minimal NOx emission are achieved.
7 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 INCREASE IN DEMAND OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Severe traffic congestion and automobile-related health problems will continue to build internationally unless the use of cars is curtailed, according to a study by the World- watch Institute, a United Nations-sponsored group. With nearly 400 million cars in use worldwide and many developing countries aggressively developing ''auto cultures,'' pollution will continue to increase, the study warns, and it questions the wisdom of heavy third-world investment in transportation systems that will serve ''a small, privileged class with ample purchasing power.'' The study recommends that in industrial nations higher taxes be assessed on cars that get low gas mileage and calls for all governments to ''discourage auto use where possible'' in favour of public transportation. ''Government policies favouring private car ownership by a tiny but affluent elite are squandering scarce resources and distorting development priorities,'' said Michael Renner, the study's author. ''In Haiti, for example, only one out of every 200 people owns a car, yet fully one-third of the country's import budget is devoted to fuel and transport equipment.'' Auto Industry Challenges Report Fig. 1.1.1 increasing demand
8 1.2 SCARCITY OF FUEL Due to tremendous increase in usage of automobiles the depletion rate of fossil fuels is increasing . It has been estimated by USA council of Research in Fuel and Energy Production that if the consumption of fuel would continue the fuel deposits would get over within 50 years so it is utter most important to conserve our source of energy. The graph below shows us a rough idea about the increase in the consumption of fuels usage. After the year 1965 the fuel use increased and in year 1995 it increased nearly 3000 times. Therefore it is very important to check on the usage of fuels consumption the government needs to take the required measurements in order to make a safe future. Fig. 1.2.1
9 1.3 POLLUTION Cars and trucks produce air pollution throughout their life, including pollution emitted during vehicle operation, re-fuelling, manufacturing, and disposal. Additional emissions are associated with the refining and distribution of vehicle fuel. Air pollution from cars and trucks is split into primary and secondary pollution. Primary pollution is emitted directly into the atmosphere; secondary pollution results from chemical reactions between pollutants in the atmosphere. The following are the major pollutants from motor vehicles: Particulate matter (PM). Hydrocarbons (HC) Nitrogen oxides (NOx). Carbon monoxide (CO). Carbon dioxide (CO2) Sulphur dioxide (SO2). Hazardous air pollutants (toxics) Greenhouse gases These gases are trapped in the converters situated at exhaust pipe of all the vehicles. But all the gases dont get trapped so it is important to design a engine which is able to give same output power but should have less emissions.
10 2 AREAS OF INTEREST 2.1 POWER Firstly automobiles were used only for transportation purpose but now a days all the youth is interested in buying a vehicle which has more power and is capable of getting high accelerations and attain maximum speed in less time. So in order to fulfil consumers demand the engine of the automobile should have high output power and should be able to reach the expectations of the drivers. Apart from this the there is requirement of power in I c engine in the defence vehicles too. As they need to survive in different conditions and have to cover uneven roads. So overall power of the automobile engine has to be increased. 2.2 EFFICIENCY As we have seen in the previous chapter that the demand of I c engines are increasing and because of which the total usage of fuel is also increased. This petroleum isnt a renewable source of energy, hence it needs to be conserved for the future generations. But according to current rate of usage of the fuel and the fuel deposits available in earths crush it is estimated that in near future (approximately in next 20 years) the fossil fuel deposits will be finished. So in order to preserve them we need to either decrease the use of vehicles or we need to increase the average or efficiency of the I c engine. Usage of vehicle cant be controlled so the only option left with humankind is to increase the efficiency of the automobiles as much as possible. 2.3 EMMISIONS The major source of air pollution is automobiles. In was seen that the 60% of air pollutions is caused because of the automobiles. The emissions from the automobiles are as follows-
11 Particulate matter (PM). These particles of soot and metals give smog its murky colour. Fine particles less than one-tenth the diameter of a human hair pose the most serious threat to human health, as they can penetrate deep into lungs. PM is a direct (primary) pollution and a secondary pollution from hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and sulphur dioxides. Diesel exhaust is a major contributor to PM pollution. Hydrocarbons (HC). These pollutants react with nitrogen oxides in the presence of sunlight to form ground level ozone, a primary ingredient in smog. Though beneficial in the upper atmosphere, at the ground level this gas irritates the respiratory system, causing coughing, choking, and reduced lung capacity. Nitrogen oxides (NOx). These pollutants cause lung irritation and weaken the body's defences against respiratory infections such as pneumonia and influenza. In addition, they assist in the formation of ground level ozone and particulate matter. Carbon monoxide (CO). This odourless, colourless, and poisonous gas is formed by the combustion of fossil fuels such as gasoline and is emitted primarily from cars and trucks. When inhaled, CO blocks oxygen from the brain, heart, and other vital organs. Sulfur dioxide (SO2). Power plants and motor vehicles create this pollutant by burning sulfur-containing fuels, especially diesel. Sulfur dioxide can react in the atmosphere to form fine particles and poses the largest health risk to young children