ï€ Taxonomy and phylogeny Taxonomy the study of classification - how organisms are placed in groups or taxa (singular = taxon) Phylogeny the study of the

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  • Taxonomy and phylogeny Taxonomy the study of classification - how organisms are placed in groups or taxa (singular = taxon) Phylogeny the study of the evolutionary history of living organisms Classification now uses phylogeny when arranging organisms into groups so classification reflects evolutionary relationships It shows that closely related species share a common ancestor (which may now be extinct) A range of characteristics are used e.g. anatomy, behaviour, embryological development, molecular structure (proteins and DNA)
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  • The evolutionary relationships of the wolf, dog and fox
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  • Classification of the plant kingdom based on phylogeny
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  • Anatomy and embryology This is evidence for a common ancestor for these mammals
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  • Classification of reptiles and birds based on phylogeny
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  • Classification of leopard, skunk, otter, dog and wolf based on phylogeny
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  • Are chimps in the same genus as humans? See page 212 213 textbook
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  • Using DNA bases as evidence which 2 animals are most closely related? And which are most distantly related? Animals% difference in bases C, G, A and T in coding DNA human / chimpanzee0.87 human / gorilla1.04 human / orang-utan2.18 chimpanzee / gorilla0.99 chimpanzee / orang-utan2.14 gorilla / orang-utan2.25
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  • Classification of humans and apes based on phylogeny
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  • Classification the binomial system Carolus Linnaeus, 18C
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  • What does Binomial mean? Each name has 2 parts. The first is a group of similar species, the genus. The second is the single species. The genus always has a capital letter and the species never has. The name is typed in italics, or underlined when hand written.
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  • Some examples common names? Homo sapiens Vibrio cholerae Canis lupus Mycobacterium tuberculosis
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  • So what is a species? Members of the same species show similar morphological, biochemical (e.g. DNA) and physiological characteristics and can breed together, producing fertile offspring.
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  • List the 7 levels of the hierarchy of taxa (classification groups) There are 5 kingdoms, the largest groups. Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species. King Philip could only find gruesome socks!
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  • The subdivisions of a kingdom http://advancedsciences.cambridge.org/ocr/biology_1/animation/3392 how can you learn the names? http://advancedsciences.cambridge.org/ocr/biology_1/animation/3392
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  • Here are 2 examples each from a different kingdom. AnimaliaPlantae ChordataAngiospermophyta MammaliaDicotyledonae PrimataRosales HominidaePapilionaceae HomoLathyrus sapiensordoratus (human)(sweet pea)
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  • Classifying the grizzly bear Each organism is given 2 names a binomial = genus + species e.g. Ursus horribilis
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  • Checking your understanding 1)Complete the questions in your Classification workbooklet. 2) answer SAQ 1 page 209 3) what is the binomial system of naming organisms? and why is important in Biology? http://advancedsciences.cambridge.org/ocr/biology_1/animation/3392
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  • 5 kingdoms (1988) http://advancedsciences.cambridge.org/ocr/biology_1/animation/5278 http://advancedsciences.cambridge.org/ocr/biology_1/animation/5278 Prokaryote(Monera), Protoctista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
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  • Kingdom ?
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  • Hyphae have _________ cell walls. Hyphae secrete ________ and absorb small _______ molecules. Hetero__________.
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  • Kingdom ?
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  • Multicellular, Pho_____________, auto__________. _____________ cell walls. Non - ___________.
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  • Kingdom ?
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  • Multi__________, Non ph________, hetero___________ with _________ coordination.
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  • Kingdom Pro______?
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  • Eu___________. Uni - __________ or assemblages of similar _____. Some _________ and some _____________.
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  • Kingdom Pro_______?
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  • No membrane - _________ ________. N________ (no histone protein), c_________ DNA. Peptidoglycan _____ ______.
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