01 Naville - The Store City of Pithom

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EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND.51

M

/

prophet

a usual

title,

foundad:

had been erected

in all the temples of Egypt.

The deceased

each other.of

dresses the priests^^

whoall

are entering the templethe priests icho

them

is

the statue of a

man

One of which we haveThesize

Au

Itau

unti,

and

about two-thirds, while the shoulder only of thego into thestatue of thelet

sacred abode ofTiun, the great god of Succoth,

woman has been

preserved.

them

saji that a roij(d offering he

made

to

the

Ka

and theof

style of the inscription,

and

all else, indi-

the beloved

of

the great

god

.

.

.

that the ceremonies heis

cate that these

monuments werefirst

erected together.

madein

to the

Ka

of him whose name" &c.

not destroyed^

Thethe

statue of the

man, discovered on the 10ththing which confirmedat

the temple before

This inscriptionit

of February,

was theI

alone would be sufficient to prove that

was the

opinion

had

formedsite

Ismailiah,

that

Abode

of Turn,

Ha Tum,any king

or Pitliom of Succoth,el

Maskhutah was theRaamses.back of the statue

of

Pithom and not oflines of text at the

which lay buried under Tell

Maskhutah.us the reign toIt is

There are three:

Nowhich

unfortunately they are broken

ovalthis

of

gives

monumentthatit

belongs.earlier

very likely,

at the top

andlord

at the

endI

however,I

is

than the Ptolemies.ifit

Linepraise.

1.

I go into his abode with joy, andTumand

go out with

My

myall

lady Hathor give

me

food

should not be

surprised

dated from

a

dynasty later than the twenty-second, for example,

and provisions in abundance, in great number.

good things, and children

from the time of Nectanebo

I.,

who, as we haveof

The nextLine2.

line gives

us the

titles;2

of the priest

seen, enlarged the temple of Pithom.

,'

the metal vase

the Auhau, the chiefofficial

Plate VI.monuments,

BeforeI

going on to the Ptolemaiccalcare-

the head of the storehouse, theof Succoth, the prophet of*

of the

must mention a three-sidedis

temple of

Tum

Hathor

of

An, thethe

prophet Pames

Isis,

the son of the Auhau, the

official

ous stone, on each face of whichsubject.

an engraved

prophet

In the middle we see a king with hisraised,

thou art pure in

tlie

presence of

all;

;

thou pleasest

hands

in the

act

of

worshipping thestill

thy lady Hathor, who is in perpetual joy she grants that thy name may remain with this statue,^ in the abode of

god Horus.extant;

The lower part of his cartouche ismost

Tum

the great living god

of

Succoth.

It

wiU not be

but, despite the

careful inspection,

destroyed.

I could not succeed in deciphering these signs,

and

The few

signs which are

still

extant of theinteresting,

therefore in determining the kingcontain.faces;

whose name they

inscription of the other statue

are

The same king appears on the two other on one he holds his bow and his mace and^

seems about to

start for a

military expedition

Brugsch, " Diet. Hier.," vol.f^111

vii. p.

1261.

;

'

on the

other,

on the contrary, he holds by the hair*

^3"(^

,

a

116'^^

word, of which I do not

know

/wvwv

a prisoner with his elbows tied behind his back,

the sense.

which indicates that the campaign must have beensuccessful,

On

the reading mes of the lock of hair

'^

,

cf.

Bergmann,

"Hier. Inschr.," p. IG.'(1i

and that the king had been

victorious.

I

Pithom, which were built in theIt is possible that the canal

Wadi

Tumilat.

^rm

^fe^

rv/'N^

was traced and dugend there

which evidently was aovertook

salt lake.

Thirst, says he,

in

an imperfect way

:

at the

may have

me

in mij journey,

my

throat

was parched ;

been those marshes and pastures in which theBedawccs of Atuma asked the Pharaoh Menephtahto allow''

them

to pasture their cattle.la

Id., p. 178. Dii Bois Ayrce, " Memoire sur

les

anciennes limites de

mer Eouge,"*5

ed.

Panckouke," Melangestlie

p.

380.vi., p. 5.36.

Cf. Brugsch, Diet. Hier. vol. Cf. Maspero,

'

" Memoire sur

les

principaux travaux d'utilite publique

d'archeologie,"vi.

209

et

seq.

;

executes en Egypte,"

p. 195.

Goodwin, " Kecords of

Past," vol.

22

STORE-CITY OF PITHOM AND THE ROUTE OF THE EXODUS.said thisis

I

the

taste

of death.

Fortunately for

one of the gulfs of the Red Sea.of a

Luciau speaks

him, be saw a Bedawee, a Sati,

who brought himof

young man whoEgyptianis

sailed

from Clusma to India.

some water; and be escaped thus from dyingthirst.

Philostorgos also says that one of the gulfs endsat thecity of

It is interesting to

know

that

at

that

Clusma, from which

its

time, long before

Eameses

II.,

that part of

the

nameIf

derived.

This shows that the city of

country was inhabited by Sati, Asiatic Bedawees,against

Arsinoe no longer existed and had been forgotten.

whom

the Pharaohs

had

to

fight

;

for

from the

Romanit

inscription

we know the?

before arriving at

Kemuer, Saueba had passed

site of

Clusma, where now shall we put Arsinoe

a fortress which the king had the Sati.It

made

to

keep

off

According to Strabo

was near

Heroijpolis,

and

washis

for

the

same purpose

that

close to the end of the canal

which went through

Eameses andtresses of the

son Menepbtab built the forTumilat.

the Bitter Lakes.

Pliny says that Pbiladelphoslest

Wadi

stopped at the Bitter Lakes, fearingto be the present

the

I believe the lake of

Kemuerit

country mightcanalaiintis,

be

overflowedcalls

if

he carried hisPtolemaeusit

lake Timsah, but very probably to have had adifferent

farther.

He

the

canal

form from what

has now

;

I think also

the Ptolemean river, and he says thatahiiifj

that the gulf which Pliny calls Charandra

must beThere,

fiuws

Arsinoe (prtefluit Arsinoen).

Fromsituate

understood as meaning the lake Timsah.at the

this I should conclude that Arsinoe

was

head of the

gulf,

Pbiladelphos built the city

where in the time of the Pharaohs there were

oi Arsinoe, which he dedicated to his second wife,his sister, the princess to

marshes

;

which marshes were made navigable by;

whomit

he granted divine

Pbiladelphosvillage

and

I should place Arsinoe at the

honours.very long.

This city does not seem to have lasted

of

Maijfar.

Atlast

that

spot

the

French

Ptolemy

built

in order to facilitate

engineers

of

the

the trade with thethe sea retreatedcanalback.farther;it

Red

Sea.'

In proportion asto carry thefar

which werefirst

still

visible

century saw some ruins when Linant Bey made hissituate

became necessary

journey.

Those ruins were

on theThis

Pitbom Heroopolis was tooit

north side of the old canal, hke Pithom.

Agatharcbides says that

was from Arsinoe;

would agree with Ptolemy, who says that Clusma

that the ships sailed to the Pied Sea

and PHny

was south of

Ai'sinoe;

and to a certain degree

mentions this city as the place where the threeroads met which led from the Mediterranean tothe

with the Tabula Peutingeriana, in which the twocities are

separated by the sea.it

Red

Sea.

Pliny, speaking of the canal, says that

unites

At the beginning o