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1 Ion Implantation M.H.Nemati Sabanci University

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  • Slide 1
  • 1 Ion Implantation M.H.Nemati Sabanci University
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  • 2 Ion Implantation Introduction Safety Hardware Processes Summary
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  • 3 Introduction Dope semiconductor Two way to dope Diffusion Ion implantation Other application of ion implantation
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  • 4 Dope Semiconductor: Diffusion Isotropic process Cant independently control dopant profile and dopant concentration Replaced by ion implantation after its introduction in mid-1970s.
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  • 5 Dope Semiconductor: Ion Implantation Used for atomic and nuclear research Early idea introduced in 1950s Introduced to semiconductor manufacturing in mid-1970s.
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  • 6 Dope Semiconductor: Ion Implantation Independently control dopant profile (ion energy) and dopant concentration (ion current times implantation time) Anisotropic dopant profile Easy to achieve high concentration dope of heavy dopant atom such as phosphorus and arsenic.
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  • 7 Ion Implantation, Phosphorus Poly Si n+n+ P-type Silicon n+n+ SiO 2 P+P+
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  • 8 Ion Implantation Control Beam current and implantation time control dopant concentration Ion energy controls junction depth Dopant profile is anisotropic
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  • 9 Stopping Mechanism Ions penetrate into substrate Collide with lattice atoms Gradually lose their energy and stop Two stop mechanisms
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  • 10 Two Stopping Mechanism Nuclear stopping Collision with nuclei of the lattice atoms Scattered significantly Causes crystal structure damage. electronic stopping Collision with electrons of the lattice atoms Incident ion path is almost unchanged Energy transfer is very small Crystal structure damage is negligible
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  • 11 Implantation Processes: Channeling If the incident angle is right, ion can travel long distance without collision with lattice atoms It causes uncontrollable dopant profile Very few collisions Lots of collisions
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  • 12 Channeling Effect Channeling Ion Collisional Ion Lattice Atoms Wafer Surface
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  • 13 Implantation Processes: Channeling Ways to avoid channeling effect Tilt wafer, 7 is most commonly used Screen oxide Pre-amorphous implantation, Germanium Shadowing effect Ion blocked by structures Rotate wafer and post-implantation diffusion
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  • 14 Implantation Processes: Damage Ion collides with lattice atoms and knock them out of lattice grid Implant area on substrate becomes amorphous structure Before ImplantationAfter Implantation
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  • 15 Implantation Processes: Anneal Dopant atom must in single crystal structure and bond with four silicon atoms to be activated as donor (N-type) or acceptor (P-type) Thermal energy from high temperature helps amorphous atoms to recover single crystal structure.
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  • 16 Thermal Annealing Dopant AtomLattice Atoms
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  • 17 Thermal Annealing Dopant AtomLattice Atoms
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  • 18 Thermal Annealing Dopant AtomLattice Atoms
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  • 19 Thermal Annealing Dopant AtomLattice Atoms
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  • 20 Thermal Annealing Dopant AtomLattice Atoms
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  • 21 Thermal Annealing Dopant AtomLattice Atoms
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  • 22 Thermal Annealing Dopant AtomLattice Atoms
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  • 23 Thermal Annealing Dopant AtomsLattice Atoms
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  • 24 Implantation Processes: Annealing Before Annealing After Annealing
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  • 25 Ion Implantation: Hardware Gas system Electrical system Vacuum system Ion beamline
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  • 26 Implantation Process Gases and Vapors: P, B, BF 3, PH 3, and AsH 3 Select Ion: B, P, As Select Ion Energy Select Beam Current Next Step Implanter
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  • 27 Ion Implanter Gas Cabin Ion Source Vacuum Pump Electrical System Analyzer Magnet Beam Line End Analyzer WafersPlasma Flooding System
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  • 28 Ion Implantation: Gas System Special gas deliver system to handle hazardous gases Special training needed to change gases bottles Argon is used for purge and beam calibration
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  • 29 Ion Implantation: Electrical System High voltage system Determine ion energy that controls junction depth High voltage system Determine ion energy that controls junction depth RF system Some ion sources use RF to generate ions
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  • 30 Ion Implantation: Vacuum System Need high vacuum to accelerate ions and reduce collision MFP >> beamline length 10 -5 to 10 -7 Torr Turbo pump and Cryo pump Exhaust system
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  • 31 Ion Implantation: Control System Ion energy, beam current, and ion species. Mechanical parts for loading and unloading Wafer movement to get uniform beam scan CPU board control boards Control boards collect data from the systems, send it to CPU board to process, CPU sends instructions back to the systems through the control board.
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  • 32 Ion Implantation: Beamline Ion source Extraction electrode Analyzer magnet Post acceleration Plasma flooding system End analyzer
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  • 33 Ion Beam Line Ion Source Vacuum Pump Analyzer Magnet Beam Line End Analyzer Wafers Plasma Flooding System Post Acceleration Electrode Extraction Electrode Suppression Electrode
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  • 34 Hot tungsten filament emits thermal electron Electrons collide with source gas molecules to dissociate and ionize Ions are extracted out of source chamber and accelerated to the beamline RF and microwave power can also be used to ionize source gas Ion implanter: Ion Source
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  • 35 Ion Implantation: Extraction Extraction electrode accelerates ions up to 50 keV High energy is required for analyzer magnet to select right ion species.
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  • 36 Ion Implantation: Analyzer Magnet Gyro radius of charge particle in magnetic field relate with B-field and mass/charge ratio Used for isotope separation to get enriched U 235 Only ions with right mass/charge ratio can go through the slit Purified the implanting ion beam
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  • 37 Analyzer Ion Beam Smaller m/q Ratio Larger m/q Ratio Right m/q Ratio Magnetic Field (Point Outward) Flight Tube
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  • 38 Ion Implantation: The Process CMOS applications CMOS ion implantation requirements Implantation process evaluations
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  • 39 Implantation Process: Well Implantation High energy (to MeV), low current (10 13 /cm 2 ) P-Epi P-Wafer Photoresist N-Well P+P+
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  • 40 Photoresist B+B+ P-Epi P-Wafer N-Well P-Well STI USG Implantation Process: V T Adjust Implantation Low Energy, Low Current
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  • 41 Photoresist P+P+ P-Epi P-Wafer N-Well P-Well STI USG Lightly Doped Drain (LDD) Implantation Low energy (10 keV), low current (10 13 /cm 2 )
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  • 42 Implantation Process: S/D Implantation Low energy (20 keV), high current (>10 15 /cm 2 ) P-Epi P-Wafer N-Well P-Well Photoresist P+P+ STIUSG n+n+ n+n+
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  • 43 Process Issues Wafer charging Particle contamination Elemental contamination Process evaluation
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  • 44 Ion Implantation: Safety One of most hazardous process tools in semiconductor industry Chemical Electro-magnetic Mechanical
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  • 45 Summary of Ion Implantation Dope semiconductor Better doping method than diffusion Easy to control junction depth (by ion energy) and dopant concentration ( by ion current and implantation time). Anisotropic dopant profile.
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  • 46 Summary of Ion Implantation Ion source Extraction Analyzer magnets Post acceleration Charge neutralization system Beam stop
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  • 47 Summary of Ion Implantation Well High energy, low current Source/DrainLow energy, high current Vt AdjustLow energy, low current LDDLow energy, low current

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