1 THE ROLE OF A UNIVERISTY IN ITS REGION John Goddard Professor of Regional Development Studies Pro-Vice-Chancellor University of Newcastle upon Tyne University

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1 THE ROLE OF A UNIVERISTY IN ITS REGION John Goddard Professor of Regional Development Studies Pro-Vice-Chancellor University of Newcastle upon Tyne University of Newcastle Public Lecture 29 February 2000 Slide 2 2 OUTLINE 1.Sources 2.The drivers for regional engagement 3.Implications for national, regional and university policy 4.The UK policy context 5.The geography of the UK knowledge economy/society and of UK higher education 6.The North East Region and Newcastle University. Slide 3 3 1. RESEARCH RESOURCES: UK CURDS ongoing research on regional variations in innovation and technological change CVCP - Universities and Communities (1994) DfEE - Universities and Economic Development (1997 - 98) DfEE - North East Graduate Labour Markets (1998 - 99) The regional role of Warwick University: the development of a Strategic Partnership (1999) HEFCE/CVCP - The contribution of higher education to the regions (2000-2001) Slide 4 4 INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH OECD Programme on Institutional Management in Higher Education: The response of Universities to regional needs (1997-99) Committee of Rectors of European Universities (CRE) Dialogue of Universities with their regional partners (1997- 99) Finnish Higher Education Evaluation Council: The responsive university: the regional role of Eastern Finland universities (1997-99); External engagement and institutional adjustment: an evaluation of the University of Turku (1999 - 2000) EU 4th Framework Programme: UNIREG (UK, Ireland, Finland, Netherlands, Germany, Spain, Greece) (1999 - 2001) Slide 5 5 2. POLITICAL DRIVERS Old concerns - raising general education levels and output of scientific research New concerns - harnessing teaching and research to specific economic and social objectives Specificity most clear in field of regional development Universities located IN regions but what contribution does their teaching and research make to the development OF the region? Slide 6 6 THIRD ROLE Long established contribution to the economy and society in places in which universities are located Continuing Education, research support for local firms, public lectures, concerts, access to libraries, galleries and museums Requirement for formal recognition of the third role, but fully integrated with teaching and research Slide 7 7 HIGHER EDUCATION POLICY DRIVERS Shift from elite to mass HE Meeting needs of a larger and more diverse client population Lifelong learning needs created by changing skill demands in the labour market Declining maintenance grants/more stay at home students Increased global competition from new providers New modes of delivery (ICTs) Changing nature of knowledge production Slide 8 8 ECONOMIC DRIVERS (1) Globalisation and localisation of the economy and declining regulatory capacity of the nation state Corporate decentralisation and growing importance of local production environment New local/regional clients for research and graduates Demand for work based learning and tacit skills Slide 9 9 ECONOMIC DRIVERS (2) Shift from mode 1 knowledge creation (homogenous, disciplinary, hierarchical) to mode 2 knowledge (non- hierarchical, transient, transdisciplinary, developed in the context of applications) Regionalisation of regulatory capacity of the nation state (firms, chambers of commerce, training agencies) Networks: Associated governance; soft infrastructure; untraded interdependencies Universities as nation builders to universities as region builders - active role in capacity building Slide 10 10 LEARNING REGIONS (1) Network knowledge is highly dependent on inter- personal relations and therefore most readily developed within a region Learning regions effectively communicate to the education and training system the appropriate skills and competencies required of the workforce In learning regions people development linked to the strategic objectives of both organisations and the region Slide 11 11 LEARNING REGIONS (2) The shift in knowledge-intensive capitalism goes beyond the particular business and management strategies of individual firms. It involves the development of new inputs and a broader infrastructure at the regional level on which individual firms and production complexes can draw. The nature of this economic transformation makes regions key economic units in the global economy To be effective in this increasingly borderless global economy, regions must be defined by the same criteria and elements which comprise a knowledge-intensive firm: continuous improvement, new ideas, knowledge creation and organisational learning. Regions must adopt the principles of knowledge creation and continuous learning; they must in effect become knowledge creating or learning regions (R.Florida) Slide 12 12 National funding to meet national labour market and RTD needs Single funder and long term security Predictable 18-21 year old cohort of students Corporate sector employers of students Academic peers and corporate sector as research clients Limited demands on management Supporting self management and collegiality OLD HE MANAGEMENT MODEL Slide 13 13 NEW HE MANAGEMENT MODEL Universities not immune from globalisation and localisation pressures Privileged relationship with Government undermined New intermediaries articulate demands of others Chambers of Commerce: SMEs; community associations: life long learners; local authorities: arts and cultural industries New requirements for locally relevant knowledge production; global gateways; adaptable workforce; leadership in regional governance Slide 14 14 Slide 15 15 THE ROLE OF STUDENTS AND GRADUATES A channel for local employers to the global knowledge base available to university researchers Feedback mechanisms via CPD and alumni to ensure teaching and learning reflects employer needs Access for researchers to challenging problems Social basis of relationships on which commercialisation of the science base can build Slide 16 16 THE ROLE OF CULTURAL ACTIVITIES Strengthening regional cultural identify and self awareness Contributing to cultural industries (audience and product) Attracting and retaining creative people Reducing social exclusion and developing local communities Leadership in civil society and contributing to the environment within which business operates Slide 17 17 THE CHALLENGES OF HEI ENGAGEMENT WITH TERRITORY HEIs operate within multiple territories - local, regional, national, international Closed territories of local stakeholders compared to open territories of HEIs Connotations of insularity and parochialism associated with regionalism (cf. metropolitan/cosmopolitan) Institutional autonomy versus regional planning of higher education Challenge to simultaneously manage the various territorial portfolios so they reinforce each other and establish mechanisms through which the national and international connections of HEIs and be mobilised to benefit the region Slide 18 18 3. RECOMMENDATIONS TO NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS Mapping the geography of higher education what courses are taught where and how where do students come from and graduates go to highlight good practice in regional engagement Foster inter-ministerial dialogue Industry, technology, labour market, interior, other specialist agencies Identify common interests in universities and territorial development build joint strategies Design and establish an incentive and funding programme for Regional Development and Universities Incentives to encourage HEIs to establish programmes/projects to strengthen regional links Promotion of partnerships and dialogue between regional education providers such as schools, FE and HE and other training providers Slide 19 19 RECOMMENDATIONS TO LOCAL AND REGIONAL AUTHORITIES Develop understanding of HEIs in the area Goals, mission, profile, organisation of institutions Use HEI expertise for regional analysis Participation in regional Future Search Conference Incorporate HEIs into regional action plans/programmes Inward investment Technology transfer Skills/training/physical plans cultural initiatives and institutional capacity building Financial support for collaborative projects Joint bids to national fund Mechanisms for regional interface Slide 20 20 INCORPORATION INTO REGIONAL ACTION PLANS AND PROGRAMMES Inward investment - overseas delegations Consultancy schemes to assist product and process innovation Student work based learning/placement schemes Skills enhancement to raise regional competitiveness via targeted graduate retention and CPD Joint planning of non-vocational education and public opening of university facilities Slide 21 21 RECOMMENDATIONS TO HEIs 1.Economic Audit 2.Social and Community Audit 3.Stakeholder Mapping 4.Stakeholder Analysis 5.Dialogue with Stakeholders 6.Performance and Practice Management 7.Review Internal Mechanisms Slide 22 22 4. UK POLICY CONTEXT: DEARING One of the four purposes of HE to serve the needs of an adaptable, sustainable, knowledge based economy at the local, regional and national level But the extent of the local and regional engagement of universities is patchy and needs to turn to active and systematic engagement Each institution should be clear about its mission in relation to the local community and region as part of the compact we advocate between higher education society Slide 23 23 OTHER UK POLICY DETR: Building Partnerships for Prosperity: sustainable growth, competitiveness and employment in the English regions DfEE: The Learning Age: a renaissance for a new Britain DTI: Our Competitive Future: Building the knowledge driven economy. DCMS; DOH; MAFF, etc Slide 24 24 UK POLICY CONTEXT Slide 25 25 REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AGENCIES All UK regions except London and South East below European average of GDP per capita Regional executive agencies of central government VC presence on 8 out of the 9 boards but CVCP slate not accepted Informal forum of VCs in all regions but the RDA Board member does not represent the sector RDAs