28.2 Western Democracies Stumble. What political and economic challenges did the Western world face in the 1920s and 1930s? How did various countries react to them?. French Foreign Policy. Peace settlement caused friction in Europe France built Maginot Line, strengthened military - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
28.2 Western Democracies Stumble
28.2Western Democracies StumbleWhat political and economic challenges did the Western world face in the 1920s and 1930s? How did various countries react to them?French Foreign PolicyPeace settlement caused friction in EuropeFrance built Maginot Line, strengthened militaryStrict enforcement of the Treaty of VersaillesBritain wanted to relax harsh treatment of Germany, worried about France or Soviet Union becoming too strong
New Era of Peace?1925 Locarno treaties settled border disputes pledged not to resort to force, demilitarization of the Rhineland 1928- Kellogg-Briand Pact renounce war as an instrument of national policy (outlawed war)-disarmament (reduction of armed forces/weapons)
Problems with the PeacePeace settlement caused friction in EuropeKellogg-Briand Pact had no way to enforce banDisarmament Problems?League of Nations is powerless -condemned Japanese invasion of ManchuriaResentment from the losers of WWI
What would you think if you were an aspiring dictator?
Great Depression 1929 U.S. stock market collapsed America stops loaning money hurts Britain, France, and Germany 1 in 4 were unemployed in USA, even higher in Europe.
Democracy StumblesDepression made citizens question democratic governments Inability to solve foreign policy issues and act strong on aggression further emboldened radicals
ResultWeak Alliances+Weak Governments+Weak Economies=DICTATORSHIPS & TOTALITARIANISM
Fascism on the RiseItaly Objective 1: Describe how conditions in Italy favored the rise of MussoliniObjective 2: Understand the values and goals of fascist ideology Weak Alliances+Weak Governments+Weak Economies=DICTATORSHIPS & TOTALITARIANISM
Fascism on the RiseDef: Any centralized, authoritarian government that is not communist whose policies glorify the state (extreme nationalism) over the individual and are destructive to human rights. It is anti-democratic, anti-parliamentary and often anti-Semitic.Wanted no conflict by class or party and held only a single national purposeThe needs of the state outweigh the needs of the individualUse fear and police surveillance to keep controlBenito Mussolini (1883-1945)Began the party in 1919 along with others (veterans, etc..) who were resentful that Italy had been cheated in ParisUsed fear of Communism and promises of peace to gain support Black Shirts as intimidationPlayed up Italian nationalism to gain support
The March on Rome1921 elections sent 34 fascists to the chamber of deputiesOctober of 1922 Mussolini and the Fascists marched on Rome and King Victor Emmanuel III November 23 1922 king and parliament granted Mussolini dictatorial authority for one year to bring order to local government
Fascist ItaBy 1926:Il duceOne party systemHeavy Fascist propagandaSecret Police created to enforce govt. ruleFreedom of speech eliminated"Benito Mussolini loves children a lot. The children of Italy love the Duce a lot. Long live Il Duce !. A salute to Il Duce: Here's to us!".
State over the Individual - Propaganda
The function of a citizen and a soldier are inseparable
It is the State which educates its citizens in civic virtue, gives them a consciousness of their mission and welds them into unity.
The Soviet Union Under StalinObjective 1: Explain Stalins methods of control and the changes they brought to Soviet society.
Objective 2: Explain the facets of totalitarianism
Stalin1924: Lenin diesbegins a struggle over power v. Trotsky Sentences all those who oppose him to exile, prison, or death 1929: Stalin becomes dictator; all soviet councils are puppets
The Five Year Plan Aimed at building industry, transportation, and increasing farm outputAll economic activity under government control command economyIncreased production but at a large cost of human life
CollectivesAgriculture under government controlCreated collectives large farms owned and supplied by the government, operated by peasantsInitially not supportedStalin had kulaks (wealthy farmers) punishedCreated the Terror Famine Policies did not increase farm output Stalins RussiaUse of force and propaganda increaseSecret police (KGB) establishedArrest and kill any who opposed the stateRe-educate any who doubted the greatness of the statePurgesAll religion was outlawed, cult of Stalin createdParty leaders become the rich upper classPropaganda
Stalins Foreign Policy Comintern Encouraged worldwide revolutionSupported revolutionary activities outside of the Soviet UnionCaused Great Britain and other countries to break off relations with the Soviet UnionMistrust
Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany Objective: Identify the reasons for Hitlers and the Nazis rise to power in Germany. Hitlers Rise to PowerBackgroundAfter the war joined the German workers party and by 1921 was its leading spokesmanWeimar Government was weak soFrom 1919-1924 Nazi party grewUsed the SA under Ernst Roehm (Brown Shirts) to intimidate1922 party membership way up (10x) so he decided it was time to try and seize power
The Beer Hall Putsch November 1923Hitler sentenced to 5 years in jail (served less than 1)The trial was great PR for his messageWhile in jail wrote Mein KampfBlamed WW1 loss on Jews, Marxists, corrupt politicians, and business leaders Idea of Lebensraum living space
Good Times, Bad TimesWorld wide depression43% unemployed in Germany by 1932Hitler Time: Nazi promises of national recovery
Rise of Nazi Party to National Power (Reichstag elections-parliamentary)
19260%no seats in parliament 19282.6%12 out of 489 seats 193019.6%107 out of 547 seats 193233.5%196 out of 585 seats
Nazi Party Growth1932 the Nazis are the strongest party in the ReichstagHitler was appointed chancellor by Hindenburg in January of 1933 by industrialists who thought they could control him and were fearful of communism and socialism (Reichstag had become powerless)Hitler Seizes Total ControlReichstag building mysteriously burned downHitler issues an emergency decree suspending civil liberties March 1933: New election returns only 43.9% Nazis to the ReichstagHitler arrested CommunistsEnabling Act which allowed him to rule by decreeBy late June he has outlawed all other parties and controls all aspects of German societyPropaganda minister Joseph Goebbels