3 TBM Applications in Various Projects - TBM...The torque of 125,268kNm of this EPB-Shield is the highest torque ever installed in a tunnel boring machine. ... Herrenknecht machines

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Text of 3 TBM Applications in Various Projects - TBM...The torque of 125,268kNm of this EPB-Shield is the...

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    3. TBM Applications in Various Projects

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    Urban Tunnelling in Soft Grounds using TBM

    The increasing demand world-wide for shallow tunnels in urban areas even with complex geotechnical conditions and under highly built-up areas has enhanced the rapid technological development of the last decade

    The excavation diameter has already exceeded 15 m. The EPB shield with the largest diameter of 15.2 m is presently in operation for a road tunnel in Madrid beneath a highly built-up area.

    The three ways of supporting the face are slurry, excavated soil and compressed air (Figure 18). The extraction of the muck is carried out in the first case through a pipe and in the two other cases by a screw conveyor. Slurry shields are generally provided with a rock crusher at the entrance of the sucking pipe.

    b)excavated soil

    c)compressed air

    a)bentonite

    Figure 1. Face support by closed shield tunnelling a) Slurry (slurry shield) b) Excavated soil (EPB shield) c) Compressed air

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    The projects mentioned in the following presentation give an overview of TBM application in partly complex geological situations with remarkable project specific requirements both for traffic and utility tunnelling.

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    STORM WATER AND MANAGEMENT AND ROAD TUNNEL PROJECT KUALA LUMPUR, MALAYSIA

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    STORM WATER AND MANAGEMENT AND ROAD TUNNEL PROJECT KUALA LUMPUR

    The total bored tunnel section comprises 9.4 kilometers

    One of the Mixshields (13.21m) bores a length of 5.4 kilometers in northern direction. For the execution of this part of tunnelling work, the German construction company Wayss & Freytag is responsible

    The second Mixshield (13.21m) started in southern direction and is operated by the local Joint Venture MCC-GAMUDA. This section comprises a bored tunnel of 4.05 kilometers length.

    Each machine is equipped with 48 thrust jacks allowing a maximum thrust force of 93.000kN

    The two 65 meter long Mixshieldsfor the SMART Project were manufactured in Schwanau(Germany

    Figure 1. First breakthrough of the Mixshield (13.21 m) in Kuala Lumpur.

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    EXCAVATION OF THE WESTERSCHELDE ROAD TUNNEL,NETHERLANDS

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    EXCAVATION OF THE WESTERSCHELDE ROAD TUNNEL

    Two Mixshields with a diameter of 11.34m were used for the Westerschelde Road Tunnel project in the Netherlands.

    The machines are designed for ground treatment, which can cope with the relatively high support pressures of maximum up to 8.5bars.

    Referring to the high support pressures, the WesterscheldeTunnel project was the most demanding project up to now regarding access to the working chamber for maintenance and repair work.

    During works at an overpressure of up to 8.5bar, compressed air can no longer be used, since the nitrogen contained in the breath causes narcosis with increasing depth. The nitrogen is replaced by helium. During the design phase, the use of mixed gases was already planned.

    To smoothly carry out saturation diving, the TBM technology and logistics needed to be designed in compliance with the requirements for saturation diving and rescue technology, already in the planning phase.

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    EXCAVATION OF THE WESTERSCHELDE ROAD TUNNEL

    Saturation diving is a long-term stay at overpressure. All tissues are 100% saturated with inert gases, i.e. an increase of the diving time leads to a longer decompression phase.

    A chamber system was planned, consisting of two pressurized living chambers outside the tunnel. This chamber system, containing all the necessary facilities such as berths, showers and toilets, can take on a maximum 12 divers and technicians.

    Since it was not possible to install the saturation unit in the tunnel and to dock it on to the tunnel boring machine, due to technical problems, a mobile transport system (shuttle) was manufactured. The shuttle can transport up to 4 divers under hyperbaric conditions.

    Figure 2. Pressurized living chambers as preparation for long-term stay under hyperbaric conditions (top); transport shuttle (bottom).

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    M30, HIGHWAY TUNNEL PROJECT IN MADRID, SPAIN

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    M30, HIGHWAY TUNNEL PROJECT IN MADRID

    The tunnel has an inner diameter of 13.37m consisting of 9+1 reinforced concrete segments. A segment ring has a length of 2.0 meters.

    Due to a diameter of more than 15m, the TBM comprises two concentrically arranged cutting wheels. The inner cutting wheel is installed in the free center of the outer cutting wheel and is designed as flat disc-type wheel.

    The rotational drives of both cutting wheels are completely independent with different rotational speeds in both directions of rotation.

    The torque of 125,268kNm of this EPB-Shield is the highest torque ever installed in a tunnel boring machine.

    The main effect and advantage of the double cutting wheel design regarding the excavation process and soil conditioning will be discussed in the following.

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    M30, HIGHWAY TUNNEL PROJECT IN MADRID

    The extensive compensation of the differences in peripheral speeds can also be applied to the cutter tools.

    The design of the outer area allows various cutter arrangements which is normally not possible at all in the inner area as a favorable opening ratio must be maintained

    The possibility of a higher rotational speed in the inner area allows the prevention of great differences of the cutter penetration depth between the outer and the inner area. This has a wear reduction effect.

    Figure 3. Largest EPB-Shield (15.20m) world-wide.

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    GROENHART TUNNEL

    GROENHART TUNNEL TBM ASSEMBLY MOVIE CLIP

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    UPPER THOMSON LINK SEWER MANDAI ROAD, SINGAPORE

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    UPPER THOMSON LINK SEWER / MANDAI ROAD IN SINGAPORE

    The dual mode slurry/EPB TBM is designed to cope with geological conditions that vary frequently and abruptly from hard fresh granite to soft marine deposits including estuarine clay.

    Figure 4. Deep Tunnel Sewerage System (DTSS).

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    UPPER THOMSON LINK SEWER / MANDAI ROAD IN SINGAPORE

    Figure 5. Deep Tunnel Sewerage System (DTSS) Design Concept.

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    UPPER THOMSON LINK SEWER / MANDAI ROAD IN SINGAPORE

    The dual mode slurry/EPB TBM is designed to cope with geological conditions that vary frequently and abruptly from hard fresh granite to soft marine deposits including estuarine clay.

    The screw conveyor of the dual EPB/slurry TBM stays in service in both modes and the change is achieved by interchanging a rock crusher unit and the transfer belt conveyor.

    In slurry mode, material transfers from the screw conveyor into the rock crusher box and from there, down to the slurry out-bound pipeline for treatment at a simple de-sending unit on the surface.

    When transferred back to EPB mode, the crusher is moved back out of the way and the belt conveyer is extended back beneath the discharge gate at the top end of the EPB screw conveyor.

    Figure 6. Shaft Construction - Excavation

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    UPPER THOMSON LINK SEWER / MANDAI ROAD IN SINGAPORE

    Figure 7. EPB 2400 with Slurry Fire Box.

    Slurry Fire Box

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    UPPER THOMSON LINK SEWER / MANDAI ROAD IN SINGAPORE

    Figure 8. Machine in EPB mode.

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    UPPER THOMSON LINK SEWER / MANDAI ROAD IN SINGAPORE

    Figure 9. Machine in Slurry mode.

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    UPPER THOMSON LINK SEWER / MANDAI ROAD IN SINGAPORE

    Figure 10. Cutting wheels with disc for rock.

    Figure 11. Jacking arrangement for launching the TBM

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    UPPER THOMSON LINK SEWER / MANDAI ROAD IN SINGAPORE

    Figure 12. General site set up.

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    THE LONGEST RAILWAY TUNNEL, THE GOTTHARD BASE TUNNEL, IN CONSTRUCTION SWITZERLAND

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    THE LONGEST RAILWAY TUNNEL, THE GOTTHARD BASE TUNNEL, IN CONSTRUCTION

    With two 57km long stretches, the Gotthard Base Tunnel will be the worlds longest traffic tunnel. It is being carried out as part of theAlpTransit Project in Switzerland.

    The Gotthard Base Tunnel passes through extremely hard and abrasive rock and will put staff and technology to the test.

    Figure 13. TBM advance with Herrenknechtmachines through the GotthardMassif.

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    THE LONGEST RAILWAY TUNNEL, THE GOTTHARD BASE TUNNEL, IN CONSTRUCTION

    Four Gripper TBMs currently bore through the Gotthard Massif with full-face excavation. Overall, the four tunnel boring machines will drive and secure 73km of tunnel, at overburdens of up to 2,300m and, partially crossing demanding fault zones.

    The Gripper TBMs are designed with a flat cutterhead, each equipped with 17 inch disc cutters which can accommodate a cutter bit load of 267kN.

    In contrast to shield TBMs, where the introduction of the lining segments is independent from the rock conditions and allows tunnel production which is similar to a modern production line, tunnelling performance with a Gripper TBM is dependent on the amount of time required for the installation of the necessary rock support.

    Figure 14. Gripper TBM features.

    An illustrated example.

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    LINK TO TBM VERSUS DRILL AND BLAST, THE CHOICE OF TUNNELLING METHOD

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