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(ca 1589-1715) Absolutism and Constitutionalism in Western and Eastern Europe

Absolutism and Constitutionalism in Western Europemsgurr.weebly.com/uploads/3/8/4/9/3849258/absolutism_notes.pdf · Louis XIV’s legacy Wars Gained Franche-Comte, portions of Flanders,

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  • (ca 1589-1715)

    Absolutism and Constitutionalism in Western and

    Eastern Europe

  • Absolutism Difference between absolutism and totalitarianism

    Administrative monarchy concept of public service and private


    Difference from medieval traditions

    Monarch as embodiment of the state

    Reining in the nobility how is this accomplished?

    Ltat, cest moi Louis XIV (?)

  • French Absolutism Henry IV administrative reforms Edict of Nantes Taille, paulette Purchase of offices permitted

    Richelieu Fr. Cardinal Chief minister for Louis XIII Intendants Noblesse de robe v. Noblesse de sangre Rason dtat Centralization of the state Foreign policy supporting enemies

    of the Hapsburgs (see TYW) Developed the French Academy, to

    standardize and promote Parisian French as the official dialect of French

  • French Absolutism

    Richelieu Where the interests of the state are concerned, God absolves actions which, if privately committed, would be a crime.

    Richelieu is succeeded by Mazarin, another cardinal, trained by Richelieu in statecraft

    Intriguing churchmen are more responsible for influencing state policy and absolutism than kings

    Louis XIII succeeded by his son, Louis XIV at the age of 4What was the Fronde? How did it affect Louis XIV?

  • Absolute Monarch Louis XIV

    The Sun King, what is the significance of that image?

    God established rulers on earth what political conclusions are inevitable from that position?

    Ascended the throne at age 4, tutored by Mazarin, takes no chief advisor upon Mazarins death, rules until age 76, his death.

    Sought to restrict the authority of the nobility Domestication of the nobles (de sangre)

    How was this accomplished?

  • Versailles

  • Center of Absolutism - Versailles

    Privileged nobles were encouraged to live at Versailles with their family

    Other monarchs sought to imitate Versailles leading in part to French becoming new language of polite society and diplomacy

    Explain this phrase: He separated power from status and grandeur; does it hold true in part today?

  • French Financial Policy - Mercantilism

    Jean-Baptiste Colbert Louis XIVs chief financial advisor

    Policies of mercantilism sought to concentrate wealth, interpreted as gold, in the hands of the French state How does a state accrue gold?

    What is the value of gold?

    Effect of mercantilism on international trade

    Effect of mercantilism on domestic trade

    What are tariffs?

    How do mercantilistic policies affect Frances attitude toward New World colonization?

  • Louis XIVs Acts as King Revoked the Edict of Nantes, 1685Why remove toleration for Huguenots?

    What are the benefits of religious unity? Distinction between religious unity and


    Reactions to revocation

    Expansion and overhaul of militaryWhat are the advantages of a standing

    army? Regimentization?

    Consequences for France and neighbors of expanded military?

  • Louis XIVs legacy Wars Gained Franche-Comte, portions of

    Flanders, and Lorraine (1660-1680) High cost of supporting army not met

    and debts accrued War of Spanish Succession (1701-

    1713) At issue, whether or not Louis grandson,

    Philip of Anjou, would take the throne of Spain, giving Louis control over both France and Spain

    France and Spain lost this war against a coalition of Austria, England/Britain, and the Netherlands

    Peace of Utrecht, 1713 Philip was king of Spain, but could never inherit the throne of France (Bourbonization of Spain) Britain gained control over many former

    French territories, including portions of Canada

  • Louis XIVs Legacy

    French ClassicismPrimary artist Nicolas Poussin

    Literature Racine and Molire

  • Demise of Spain

    Inflation and taxes fell heavily on poor

    Foreign wars and expulsion of Moors and Jews stripped Spain of creative and middle class (few people saw money-making jobs as useful)

    Spanish kings constantly overran budgets and werent considered good credit risks by most European bankers

    Inbreeding among the Hapsburgs results in an impotent and inept heir in Charles II (see following pictures)

  • Philip III Philip IV Charles II

  • Spanish Odds and Ends

    Chronicler of Spanish decline in literature Miguel

    de Cervantes, Don Quixote

    Louis grandson, Philip V of Spain, re-invigorated

    Spanish monarchy, the House of Bourbon built

    new Royal Palace in Madrid, commissioned art and

    architecture to compete with Versailles

  • Absolutisms failure in England

    The Rise of the House of Stuart: Scotland's monarch, James VI, is heir to throne of England

    after Elizabeth's death

    Ideas of divine right of kings do not sit well with English Parliament, conflicting with precedent of consultation

    Parliament resisted James for political as well as religious reasons, his reluctance to consult with them and his foreign birth high among them

    Parliament controlled the purse, giving them significant advantage in conflict with royalty

    English gentry and burgesses leaned Puritan in religion, generally despising a series of Abps. of Canterbury for too strong favoring of Catholic-esque traditions

  • Monarchy in Crisis

    Charles, James's son, becomes king after James's death, more determined than ever to keep his own counsel

    Married to Henrietta Maria, daughter of Henry IV of France

    Seeks to marry his son off to the daughter of King of Spain

    Sought to force Scotland to accept Book of Common Prayer, making them Anglican; aroused Bishops War

    King's supporters - Cavaliers; Parliamentary supporters Roundheads (We could buy the House of Lords three times over)

  • Puritan and Parliamentary Rule

    Puritans were suspicious of Charles' perceived anti-Calvinist leanings; middle class rebelled against Charles levying taxes without consulting Parliament, or over their dissent

    As king of England, he fought against Scottish forces using English forces; he additionally ruled Scotland independently of England

    1642: Alienated many in Parliament, raised his standard against Parliament, triggered English Civil War Had sought to severely restrict his ability to rule

    absolutely, by forcing through legislation that required Parliament to meet at least every three years (Triennial Act)

    Parliament wins under leadership of Oliver Cromwell (MP and General of Parliamentary forces); New Model Army

  • Charles and the Regicides

    Tried by the Long Parliament (meeting 1640-1660); found guilty of treason and executed

    Interregnum;1649-1660 (Commonwealth) Established republican governmentAfter 1653, called the Protectorate,

    ruled by Cromwell as dictator and Lord Protector Bad reputation for suppression of Irish Actually religiously tolerant, in many

    respects, of Dissenters within the army Readmitted Jews to England for the first

    time since expulsion in 1290 Navigation Acts English goods

    transported on English ships

  • The Restoration Having had their fill of Commonwealth, leading

    MPs and Lords invite Charles II to return an reclaim his fathers throne

    Charles II does indeed return, bringing his Catholic wife with him; he was not too concerned with matters of religious doctrine

    Clarendon Code: limited political options and freedoms of religious dissenters; required membership in Church of England to participate in public life in England (preaching, teaching, holding office, receive university education)

    Government by Cabal

    Secret agreement with Louis XIV to re-establish Catholicism

  • Stuart messes

    Childless Charles succeeded by openly Catholic brother, James II

    Flouted laws against Catholics holding offices, and appointed cronies to significant positions throughout England

    Concern arose over James 2nd wife, pregnant, would bear a new Catholic heir to the throne

    Granted religious freedom to all, in effort to curry favor with religious dissenters and nonconformists

    Parliament seeks James Protestant daughter, Mary, to take the throne with her husband, William

    Stuart line still supported by Scots Pretenders still exist to this day

  • Glorious Revolution What made this revolution glorious? The elimination of the potential for Catholic


    The establishment of an English Bill of Rights 1688

    The ability of Parliament to complete the control over the monarchy it sought during the English Civil War

    Major supporter of this was John Locke, apologist for constitutionalism

    Act of Toleration, granting freedom of worship to non-Anglicans, excepting Catholics, 1689

  • Golden Age of the Dutch

    Dutch Republic flourishes in the aftermath of the TYW

    Stadholder more or less hereditary within the House of Orange, but still elected (like HRE)

    Wealthy, seafaring nation, great traders, colonized the West and East Indies (Dutch India Companies)

    What is republican government?

  • Absolutism East v. WestWhat are the major differences between the

    development of Eastern and Western absolutism? Trend toward absolutism in East with heavily restrictive

    governments Trend of opposition to absolutism in several Western

    European statesRole of serfdom, rise of middle class, role and power of the

    nobility Oath of Aragonese nobility to monarch We who are as good as you

    swear to you who are no better than we to accept you as our king and sovereign lord, provided you observe all our liberties and laws; but if not, not.

    Use of architecture to awe and overwhelm subjects

  • The Persistence of Serfdom

    Serfs an institution increasing in Eastern Europe, while it

    declined in Western Europe. Why?

    Western Europe Town air makes you free; Eastern Europe

    towns were not strong enough to resist expansion of noble lands

    Interests of king lay with nobility, not in his own rights ex.

    Polish king, elected

  • Austrian Empire

    Habsburgs continued in power until 1918, but their power was fragmented No unified empire, but ruled each land according to custom and tradition King of Hungary

    Archduke of Austria

    King of Bohemia

    Stamped out Protestantism everywhere in Bohemia during the TYW

    Major post-TYW opponent were the Turks, once again Turks had no concept of private property, no hereditary nobility, sultan took

    captive Christian peoples and trained them to be Janissaries (sultans personal guard)

    Vienna besieged in 1683, Turks forced to retreat, lost most of their European lands by 1699 (Hungary and Transylvania)

  • Charles VI and the Pragmatic Sanction

    Charles VI had only daughters to inherit the

    throne (no other existing male heirs)

    Sought desperately to keep Hapsburg lands from

    being divided and convinced most European

    powers (including Austria, Hungary, and

    Bohemia) to respect a female heir

    Pragmatic Sanction was eventually accepted by

    most European monarchs and rulers

  • The Rise of Prussia

    Emergence of Prussia as a major European power is nothing short of


    Hohenzollerns held titles of elector and duke, but their power was

    limited by the noble Estates

    Frederick William the Great Elector worked to strip power from the

    Estates, built the army, encouraged Huguenots and other middle

    class to move to Prussian lands

    Strict Calvinist, but granted mild religious toleration to allow non-

    Calvinists to move in without fear

    Most importantly, laid foundations for a significant standing army

    supported by permanent tax structure

  • Frederick and Frederick William

    Helped defeat Louis XIV in the war of the Spanish

    Succession, Elector Frederick III was elevated to King

    Frederick I in Prussia by HRE

    Prussia expanded and developed army under King

    Frederick William I

    The Soldiers King; loved tall soldiers, had entire regiments

    devoted to tall soldiers

    Military power intimidated neighboring princes, allowed Prussia

    to gain increasing prestige among European powers

    Responsible for strong bureaucracy, efficient government,

    bringing the Junkers into the army as the officer corps

  • Peter the Great

    Revolt of Stenka Razin, leading serfs against

    the boyars, led to even tighter restrictions on


    Giant tsar, Peter the Great, expands Russian

    military might

    Through new military service requirements,

    Westernization (18 month tour of Western


    Prolonged wars with Sweden (Great Northern

    War, 1700-1721)

  • Reforms of Peter the Great

    Service nobility were required to serve for life in their positions, civil or


    Enlarged standing army, drafting peasant soldiers for life

    Social changes: beards, coat length, veils for women

    Industry introduced after Peters European tour, bringing shipbuilding

    and other trades to Russia

    Increased Russias Western holdings, gaining a window on the West St.


    Forced hundreds of thousands of serfs to labor building the city

    Became new Russian capital, largely ice-free port

    Forced all nobility to take up residence in city

    City laid out according to plan, instead of growing like medieval towns