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ANALISIS EKOTOKSIKOLOGI Oleh Sudrajat FMIPA UNMUL 2010 Slide 2 Pencemaran air: sumber, tipe dan efeknya Pencemaran air adalah perubahan kualitas komponen kimia, biologis atau fisika di dalam perairan yang dapat menimbulkan gangguan terhadap kehidupan organisme atau perairan menjadi tidak sesuai dengan peruntukkannya. - Point source: specific location (drain pipes, ditches, sewer lines). - Nonpoint source: cannot be traced to a single site of discharge (atmospheric deposition, agricultural / industrial / residential runoff) Slide 3 Types and Sources of Water Pollution Point sources Nonpoint sources Biological oxygen demand Water quality WaterQualityGood 8-9 Do (ppm) at 20C Slightlypolluted Moderatelypolluted Heavilypolluted Gravelypolluted 6.7-8 4.5-6.7 Below 4.5 Below 4 Pg. 535 Slide 4 Water pollution Bacteria,Viruses,Protozoa, Parasitic worms Bacteria,Viruses,Protozoa, Parasitic worms Oxygen demanding substances Oxygen demanding substances Inorganic plant nutrients Inorganic plant nutrients Organic chemicals Organic chemicals Sediment or suspended matter Sediment or suspended matter Thermal pollution Thermal pollution Genetic pollution Genetic pollution Slide 5 Pollution of Streams Oxygen sag curve Fig. 20-5 Slide 6 Pollution of Lakes Eutrophication Discharge of untreated municipal sewage (nitrates and phosphates) Nitrogen compounds produced by cars and factories Discharge of treated municipal sewage (primary and secondary treatment: nitrates and phosphates) Discharge of detergents ( phosphates) Natural runoff (nitrates and phosphates Manure runoff From feedlots (nitrates and Phosphates, ammonia) Dissolving of nitrogen oxides (from internal combustion engines and furnaces) Runoff and erosion (from from cultivation, mining, construction, and poor land use) Runoff from streets, lawns, and construction lots (nitrates and phosphates) Lake ecosystem nutrient overload and breakdown of chemical cycling Fig.22.7, p. 499 Slide 7 Coal strip mine runoff Polluted air Deicing road salt Pesticides and fertilizers Hazardous waste injection well Pumping well Gasoline station Water pumping well Landfill Sewer Buried gasoline and solvent tanks Cesspool, septic tank Groundwater flow Confined aquifer Confined freshwater aquifer Unconfined freshwater aquifer Accidental spills Waste lagoon Leakage from faulty casing Discharge Slide 8 Fig. 21-10, p. 505 Healthy zone Clear, oxygen-rich waters promote growth of plankton and sea grasses, and support fish. Oxygen-depleted zone Sedimentation and algae overgrowth reduce sunlight, kill beneficial sea grasses, use up oxygen, and degrade habitat. Red tides Excess nitrogen causes explosive growth of toxicmicroscopic algae, poisoning fish and marine mammals. Farms Runoff of pesticides, manure, and fertilizers adds toxins and excess nitrogen and phosphorus. Toxic sediments Chemicals and toxic metals contaminate shellfish beds, kill spawning fish, and accumulate in the tissues of bottom feeders. Construction sites Sediments are washed into waterways, choking fish and plants, clouding waters, and blocking sunlight. Urban sprawl Bacteria and viruses from sewers and septic tanks contaminate shellfish beds Oxygen-depleted zone Closed beach Cities Toxic metals and oil from streets and parking lots pollute waters; Industry Nitrogen oxides from autos and smokestacks, toxic chemicals, and heavy metals in effluents flow into bays and estuaries. Closed shellfish beds Slide 9 Fig. 21-17, p. 513 Sludge Groundwater Contamination Harmful chemicals and pathogens may leach into groundwater and shallow wells. Odors Odors may cause illness or indicate presence of harmful gases. Livestock Poisoning Cows may die after grazing on sludge-treated fields. Dust Particles Particles of dried sludge carry viruses and harmful bacteria that can be inhaled, infect cuts or enter homes. Surface Runoff Harmful chemicals and pathogens may pollute nearby streams,lakes, ponds, and wetlands. Exposure Children may walk or play in fertilized fields. BUFFER ZONE Slide 10 Polutan Utama Perairan dan Efeknya Slide 11 Slide 12 Epidemi Cholera Slide 13 Hubungan antara suhu perairan dengan outbreaks (KLB) cholera Slide 14 8 ppm Biological oxygen demand Dissolved oxygen (ppm) Types of organisms 8 ppm Recovery Zone Septic Zone Decomposition Zone Clean Zone Fish absent, fungi, sludge worms, bacteria (anaerobic) Trash fish (carp, gar, leeches) Clean Normal clean water organisms (Trout, perch, bass, mayfly, stonefly) Normal clean water organisms (Trout, perch, bass, mayfly, stonefly) Clean Zone Trash fish (carp, gar, leeches) Slide 15 Problem Pengendalian Kualitas Air - Asam tambang - Eutrofikasi perairan - Microcystins - Keracunan radionuclide dan logam berat dari pertambangan - Cyanobacteria - Turunnya daya dukung perairan - Polutan di atas Baku Mutu Lingkungan Hidup