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Anatomi Dan Fisiologi Telinga 2012

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Page 1: Anatomi Dan Fisiologi Telinga 2012
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Divided into 4 parts (by function): Outer Ear Middle Ear Inner Ear Central Auditory Nervous System

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The Pinna - cartilaginous, highly variable in appearance, some landmarks.

External Auditory Canal (or external auditory meatus) - 2.5 cm tube.

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Auricle (Pinna) Gathers

sound waves Aids in

localization Amplifies

sound approx. 5-6 dB

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lateral portion-cartilage medial portion-osseous lined with epidermal

(skin) tissue hairs in lateral part cerumen (ear wax)

secreted in lateral part.

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Approx. 1 inch long “S” shaped Outer 1/3 surrounded

by cartilage; inner 2/3 by mastoid bone

Allows air to warm before reaching TM

Isolates TM from physical damage

Cerumen glands moisten/soften skin

Presence of some cerumen is normal

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Lining is mucous membrane Tympanic Membrane separates it from EAC Eustachian tube connects it to nasopharynx Also Connected to Mastoid Air Cells

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Thin membrane Forms boundary

between outer and middle ear

Vibrates in response to sound waves

Changes acoustical energy into mechanical energy

(From Merck Manual)

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Ossicular chain = malleus, incus & stapes

Malleus TM attaches at Umbo

Incus Connector function

Stapes Smallest bone in the body Footplate inserts in oval

window on medial wall

Focus/amplify vibration of TM to smaller area, enables vibration of cochlear fluids

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Mucous-lined, connects middle ear cavity to nasopharynx

“Equalizes” air pressure in middle ear

Normally closed, opens under certain conditions

May allow a pathway for infection

Children “grow out of” most middle ear problems as this tube lengthens and becomes more vertical

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1. The Stapedius Attaches to Stapes,Contracts in Response to Loud sounds, chewing, speaking; Facial (VIIth cranial) nerve

2. The Tensor Tympani Helps open Eustachian tube

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Impedance Matching

Filtering

Acoustic Reflex

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Two Halves: Vestibular--transduces motion and pull of gravity Cochlear--transduces sound energy

(Both use Hair Cells)

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The end organ of hearing Contains stereocilia & receptor hair cells 3 rows OHC, 1 row IHC Tectorial and Basilar Membranes Cochlear fluids

(From Augustana College, “Virtual Tour of the Ear”)

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Frequency specific High pitches= base of cochlea Low pitches= apex of cochlea Fluid movement causes

deflection of nerve endings Nerve impulses (electrical

energy) are generated and sent to the brain

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Transduction- Converting acoustical-mechanical energy into electro-chemical energy.

Frequency Analysis-Breaking sound up into its component frequenciesBekesy’s Traveling WaveActive Tuning from OHCs

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VIIIth cranial nerve Cochlear Nucleus Superior Olivary Complex Lateral Lemniscus Inferior Colliculus Medial Geniculate Body Primary Auditory Cortex

Brainstem

Thalamus

Mid-brain

Temporal Lobe

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PonsCerebellum

4th Ventricle

Thalamus

Corpus Callosum

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VIIIth Cranial Nerve or “Auditory Nerve” Bundle of nerve fibers (25-30K) Travels from cochlea through internal auditory

meatus to skull cavity and brain stem Carry signals from cochlea to primary auditory

cortex, with continuous processing along the way Auditory Cortex

Wernicke’s Area within Temporal Lobe of the brain

Sounds interpreted based on experience/association

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Pattern Recognition

Duration Discrimination

Localization of Sounds

Selective Attention

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Language Processing in the left hemisphere.

(Remember the right ear has the strongest connections to the left hemisphere)

Most people show a right-ear advantage in processing linguistic stimuli

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Thank you