ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS Andaman and Nehru Rajakeeya Mahavidyalaya Port Blair, Andaman. ABHIJEET PUBLICATIONS 2/46 Tukhmeerpur Extension Delhi

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  • COLONIZATION AND REHABILITATIONS IN

    ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS

    Colonization and Rehabilitations in

    Andaman and Nicobar Islands

    SWAPAN K. BISWAS

    ABHIJEET PUBLICATIONSDELHI 110094

  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    First of all I express my sincerest thanks to the Director,Indian Council of Social Science Research [Ministry of H.R.D.] Eastern Regional Centre Kolkatta, who has assignedme the important Project Work. I would like to thank Dr.Parth Chatterjee, fellow Professor of ICSSR, Eastern RegionalCentre, Kolkatta, for his constant guidance andencouragement. I also express my thanks to my Principal,H.O.D., Political Science, Librarian, and staff of J.N.R.M.My thanks are also due to Mr. Husan Ali, Archivist, andstaff of Secretariat Record room, my elder brothers for theirkind suggestion and advice and moral support in my works.I also thank Mr. Sanat Chakroborty, Murugesan, DalipKishan, Rahul, K. Nagulu, who sincerely helped me in mywork. Special thanks to Ibrahim who typed my project andtables.

    My thanks are due to Mr. Pritan Roy, Mr. N.C. Roy,Mr. Bimal Roy, Mr. Paritosh Halder, Mr. Ananta Biswas,Mr. A. De, Mr. Swapan Paik, Mr. Sunil Halder, Mr. SushilMondal, Miss Swapna Bala, Mr. Anjan Sengupta, Mr. JagdishNarayan, and Mr. Sukumar Das.

    I would be failing in my duty if I dont thank my wifeMrs. Hema Biswas, Head, Department of Economics, JNRM,Port Blair, who had constantly inspired me to finish mywork.

    Dr. S. K. Biswas

    Senior FacultyP.G. Dept. of Political Science.

    Jawaharlal Nehru Rajakeeya MahavidyalayaPort Blair, Andaman.

    ABHIJEET PUBLICATIONS2/46 Tukhmeerpur ExtensionDelhi 110094Phones: 011-22960492, 65698474e-mail: abhijeetpublication@gmail.comabhijeet_singh1@indiatimes.com

    COLONIZATION AND REHABILITATIONS IN ANDAMAN ANDNICOBAR ISLANDS

    First Published 2009

    Author

    ISBN 978-93-80031-07-1

    [All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,copied, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted or used in anyform or by any means, whether electronic, mechanical, photocopying,recording or otherwise, without the prior permission from the authoror publisher, except for a brief quotations in critical articles or reviews.]

    PRINTED IN INDIA

    Published by J.K. Singh for Abhijeet Publications, Delhi 110094,Lasertypeset by Gaurav Graphics, Delhi and Printed as HimanshuPrinters, Delhi.

  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    First of all I express my sincerest thanks to the Director,Indian Council of Social Science Research [Ministry of H.R.D.] Eastern Regional Centre Kolkatta, who has assignedme the important Project Work. I would like to thank Dr.Parth Chatterjee, fellow Professor of ICSSR, Eastern RegionalCentre, Kolkatta, for his constant guidance andencouragement. I also express my thanks to my Principal,H.O.D., Political Science, Librarian, and staff of J.N.R.M.My thanks are also due to Mr. Husan Ali, Archivist, andstaff of Secretariat Record room, my elder brothers for theirkind suggestion and advice and moral support in my works.I also thank Mr. Sanat Chakroborty, Murugesan, DalipKishan, Rahul, K. Nagulu, who sincerely helped me in mywork. Special thanks to Ibrahim who typed my project andtables.

    My thanks are due to Mr. Pritan Roy, Mr. N.C. Roy,Mr. Bimal Roy, Mr. Paritosh Halder, Mr. Ananta Biswas,Mr. A. De, Mr. Swapan Paik, Mr. Sunil Halder, Mr. SushilMondal, Miss Swapna Bala, Mr. Anjan Sengupta, Mr. JagdishNarayan, and Mr. Sukumar Das.

    I would be failing in my duty if I dont thank my wifeMrs. Hema Biswas, Head, Department of Economics, JNRM,Port Blair, who had constantly inspired me to finish mywork.

    Dr. S. K. Biswas

    Senior FacultyP.G. Dept. of Political Science.

    Jawaharlal Nehru Rajakeeya MahavidyalayaPort Blair, Andaman.

    ABHIJEET PUBLICATIONS2/46 Tukhmeerpur ExtensionDelhi 110094Phones: 011-22960492, 65698474e-mail: abhijeetpublication@gmail.comabhijeet_singh1@indiatimes.com

    COLONIZATION AND REHABILITATIONS IN ANDAMAN ANDNICOBAR ISLANDS

    First Published 2009

    Author

    ISBN 978-93-80031-07-1

    [All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,copied, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted or used in anyform or by any means, whether electronic, mechanical, photocopying,recording or otherwise, without the prior permission from the authoror publisher, except for a brief quotations in critical articles or reviews.]

    PRINTED IN INDIA

    Published by J.K. Singh for Abhijeet Publications, Delhi 110094,Lasertypeset by Gaurav Graphics, Delhi and Printed as HimanshuPrinters, Delhi.

  • CONTENTS

    Acknowledgements v

    1. Introduction 1

    2. Objectives of the Study and Survey Methodology 16

    3. Possibility of Resettlement of Refugees 38Survey Team Reports

    4. Settlement of Bengali Refugees from East Pakistan 77(1949-1976)

    5. Scheme for Rehabilitation of Settlers 94

    6. Community Development Schemes 104

    7. Social Status of Bengali Settlers 116

    8. Developmental Aspects and Bengali Community 126

    9. Present Social System Among Bengali Settlers 142

    10. Political Development in the Islands 159

    11. Economic Activities 198

    12. Cultural Activities 210

    13. Observations 216

    14. Suggestions 227

    Bibiliography 231

    Index 238

    Swapan Kumar Biswas, studied inKolkata. He obtained M.A. and Ph.D.degree from Rabindra BharatiUniversity in Kolkata. Presently heis teaching P.G. Department ofPolitical Science, Jawaharlal NehruRajkeeya Mahavidyalaya, Port Blairsince 1993. His area of research fieldis Tribals of Andaman and NicobarIslands, Island's Local SelfGovernment and settlers ofAndamans. He has to his credit manyresearch articles: City Politics of PortBlair, Parliamentary Elections of UTs,Situational Analysis of Bengali inAndaman, News PRI's, PoliticalAdministration of Nicobari Tribesetc., in reputed national journals.Attended an international seminar onLSG, revisited to Kerala, inDecember 2007, at Trivendrum,presently engaged with project workunder ICSSR (Ministry of HRD) onBengali Settlers in Andaman: AChanging Account. AttendedNational Seminar-cum-workshop inApril 2008, Sustainable City:Problems and Challenges in PortBlair, organised by AIILSG, Mumbai.

    23 cm Cloth 2009 Rs. 650

    ISBN 978-93-80031-07-1

  • CONTENTS

    Acknowledgements v

    1. Introduction 1

    2. Objectives of the Study and Survey Methodology 16

    3. Possibility of Resettlement of Refugees 38Survey Team Reports

    4. Settlement of Bengali Refugees from East Pakistan 77(1949-1976)

    5. Scheme for Rehabilitation of Settlers 94

    6. Community Development Schemes 104

    7. Social Status of Bengali Settlers 116

    8. Developmental Aspects and Bengali Community 126

    9. Present Social System Among Bengali Settlers 142

    10. Political Development in the Islands 159

    11. Economic Activities 198

    12. Cultural Activities 210

    13. Observations 216

    14. Suggestions 227

    Bibiliography 231

    Index 238

    Swapan Kumar Biswas, studied inKolkata. He obtained M.A. and Ph.D.degree from Rabindra BharatiUniversity in Kolkata. Presently heis teaching P.G. Department ofPolitical Science, Jawaharlal NehruRajkeeya Mahavidyalaya, Port Blairsince 1993. His area of research fieldis Tribals of Andaman and NicobarIslands, Island's Local SelfGovernment and settlers ofAndamans. He has to his credit manyresearch articles: City Politics of PortBlair, Parliamentary Elections of UTs,Situational Analysis of Bengali inAndaman, News PRI's, PoliticalAdministration of Nicobari Tribesetc., in reputed national journals.Attended an international seminar onLSG, revisited to Kerala, inDecember 2007, at Trivendrum,presently engaged with project workunder ICSSR (Ministry of HRD) onBengali Settlers in Andaman: AChanging Account. AttendedNational Seminar-cum-workshop inApril 2008, Sustainable City:Problems and Challenges in PortBlair, organised by AIILSG, Mumbai.

    23 cm Cloth 2009 Rs. 650

    ISBN 978-93-80031-07-1

  • 1

    Introduction

    Andaman and Nicobar Islands are the true example of unityin diversity in an Indian society, pronounced by mostdignitaries of India, who visited the land of indigenoustribes. The islands society carries a significant role beforethe rest of India. It is a settlement, which set a uniqueexample for its unity and integrity for the rest of India.The study on Islands society is empirically very importantto give instance to other societies about unity in diversityglorify in multi-ethnic, multi-linguistic society. Beforeoutsiders reached to these Islands, it was exclusively thehomeland of indigenous tribes. The British unfolded thedoor of Virgin Islands in Bay of Bengal before the worldviewers in 1858. Since then it was the unending journey ofthe non-tribal to these Islands. There are six different typesof tribes inhabited in the chain of Islands.

    Among the Union Territories, the Andaman and Nicobarconstitute the single largest Union Territory in the IndianRepublic. This territory was declared a Union Territory onNovember 1st, 1956, under the jurisdiction of the IndianUnion. According to the 2001 Census, more than 500 Isleshave been divided into three districts namely, SouthAndaman, Middle and North Andaman and Nicobar. TheAndaman group of Islands consists of a chain of islandssaid to be more than 400 in number and the Nicobar groupsof islands consists of a chain of 22 Islands. Out of these

    2 Colonization and Rehabilitations in Andaman & Nicobar

    Islands, only 38 Islands are inhabited by the people in whom25 and 13 are located in the Andaman and the Nicobargroups of Islands respectively.

    Nomenclature and History of the Islands

    The position as well as the nomenclature of the Andamanand Nicobar Islands is extremely obscure, many