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Armour and Infantry Assault Rules for Scaled World War 2 battles First Edition Peter Morffew

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  • Armour and Infantry Assault

    Rules for Scaled World War 2 battles

    First Edition

    Peter Morffew

  • 2

    Introduction

    Armour and Infantry Attack World War 2 rules are easy to use and designed for games of all sizes, from company level up to divisional level with armour, infantry with artillery support The rules are designed to have the minimal amount of die rolling so that a game can be concluded within a afternoon or evening. The rules are meant to capture the atmosphere of a World War 2 battle rather than to emulate it in detail. These rules have been adapted from the Land and Airborne Assault Modern Rules which have been fully tested. Armour and Infantry Attack rules have been play tested several times to ensure playability. Aircraft are not included in this edition of the rules but a future edition might include aircraft support. Any comments can be sent to the author at the following e mail adddress [email protected]

    Peter Morffew Copy right 2006

    Other rules by Peter Morffew

    Age of Musket series. Rules covering the era of the musket from 1690 to 1866 at http://ageofmusket.uuuq.com/index.htm

    Land and Airborne Assault. Rules for modern warfare from 1950 to the present day covering all aspects of modern warfare including Special Forces at http://landandairborne.uuuq.com/index.htm

    Rorkes Drift. Rules specifically design for the battle at Rorked Drift. Either side can win at http://ageofmusket.uuuq.com/rorkesdrift./index.html

    Data for these rules is at http://landandairborne.uuuq.com/ww2/

  • 3

    General

    Requisites These rules require the following. Two ordinary six sided dice, a ruler or tape measure, pen or a pencil, note paper, figures, the Armour and Infantry Attack data list from the internet and enthusiasm.

    Scales The time scale for each bound is one minute of combat, movement and relevant actions carried out by both players simultaneously. The ground scales depend on the space available. A good working scale is 20 inches or 50 cm to a kilometre. One inche or 1 cm to 50 metres. Figure scales are one to one for vehicles, bridges, buildings, etc. Two man support elements and three or four man assault elements can be represented by one figure based on a suitably sized card i.e. three or four man element would cover a area 25 metres by 50 metres in a combat formation.

    Dice rolling

    To make the game faster and manageable a lot of dice rolling normally associated with a set of modern warfare rules have been cut out, hence there is no dice rolling for the process of acquisition, achieving a hit and requests. A description of these actions are explained below.

    Acquisitions It is considered that if a target is in direct line of sight of the firer it can be seen. Maximum visibility has been imposed according to the weather, size of the target, terrain, time of day i.e. day or night, etc.

    Requests It is considered that all elements are in radio contact with each other. Limitations have been imposed for how many requests can be made per bound . There is a delay between making a request and the arrival of the support.

    Achieving a hit The hit probability of a weapon and the kill probability have been combined into a single die roll. There are factors that cover both sets of probabilities with spiralling results Some of the factors taken into consideration is the speed of the target, the target size, the armour class, Type of armour, firers speed, type of ammunition, etc.

  • 4

    Troop types

    Militia Home defence : These troops are armed with small arms and hand grenades only.

    Conscripts, Reservists, National Guard, Territorials : These troops are armed with small arms, hand grenades. They can call up artillery support if available and indigenous battalion mortars

    Regular Army troops, Penal Battalion troops: These are troops that have seen combat and make up the main body of troops with in most armies. They use radios and can call up artillery support unless Russian. Penal Battalion troops have just small arms i.e. rifles.

    Paratroopers, Commandos and Legionnares, Gurkhas, SS : These troops are well trained regardless of their nationality. Their armament can be as the regular troops.

    Special Forces : Troops such as Green Berets, SAS cannot exceed more than 5% of the total points paid for a army.

    Communication

    Radio communication : All elements in the same battle group or army are considered to be within radio contact with each other. One element can make one request per bound and one element or unit can receive one request per bound.

    Field telephones : Troops using field telephones have to be stationary for the entire game to ensure communication. A cord has to be layed out to indicate the lines of communication.

    Requests : Under all circumstances one element can make one request per bound and only one request can be recieved per bound

    Radio voice communication: This allows for upto two requests per bound to be made either from the Infantry to the Artillery and one from a commander higher than battalion level. This rules excludes Russian troops where only commanders above battalion level can make two requests per bound .

    Field telephones : This communication system allows one request per telephone line per bound.

  • 5

    Visibility

    Below are the maximum visibility ranges given under certain conditions. The initials in the range colums refer to either k = kilomtres or m = metres.

    Maximum visibility affected by weather conditions Weather conditions day light dawn/ dusk Night with moo Night no moon Clear 10k 750m 300m 50m Overcast 5k 250m 100m 25m Mirage 1.5k Hazy 2k Fog 100m 25m 10m 0 Light rain 2k 125m 50m 25m Heavy rain 1k 75m 25m 10m Snow 200m 50m 25m 0

    Maximum visibility affected by terrain Terrain Woods 100m 50m 25m 0 In or behind foliage/hedge 100m 25m 0 0 Palm groves 300m 150m 50m 0 Jungle 50m 25m 0 0

    Night visibility aids White light searchlight 500m 1k 1k

    Flares and illumination Flares are used extensively on the battlefield from pistols usually carried by Officers The purpose of flares is to take away the cover of night. They will cover a area of 150mX150m.

    Smoke screens Smoke screens are a means of shielding troops and actions from sight. The size and duration of a smoke screen depends on the type of delivery and the calibre of the weapon. See the areas and durations below. Smoke screen system Length of screen Duration Notes Smoke generators 100 metres 3 bounds All screens are 25 metres wide and 25 metres high. Exhaust smoke/fumes 100 metres Generators and Exhaust 50 metres high.

    Artillery/ Guns, mortars and howitzers Upto 82mm 100 metres 2 bounds All areas are the beaten zone Upto 106mm 150 metres 2 bounds plus the distance down wind Upto 155mm 200 metres 3 bounds of the screen length for each Gun fired at the target. Salvo Rockets double the screen length And last 5 bounds. Screen is 50 metres high

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    Direct fire/ guns and howitzers Upto 75mm 100 metres 1 bound Upto 85mm 150 metres 1 bound Upto 100 mm 200 metres 2 bounds Upto 125mm 250 metres 2 bounds Upto 155 mm 300 metres 3 bounds Vehicles using exhaust smoke screens move at three quarters of the cross country speed whether on or off the road. To maintain an indirect fire smoke screen once it is etsablished use two of the batteries guns/howitzers/ mortars each bound.

    Dead ground A.F.V.s claiming hulldown or turret down and Infantry when on a hill have dead ground below them at the foot of the hill. The area of the dead ground depends on the height of the hill. A.F.V.s and Infantry the dead ground is three times the height of the hill. Troops within this dead ground cannot be seen and they cannot see the troops on top of the hill.

    The dead ground behind an intermediate object between the firer and the target is taken in direct line from the firer to the top of the object/feature and beyond. The measured space behind the object/feature is the dead ground and any troops in this area cannot be seen.

    Cover Any troops in a wood/forest 25 metres from the edge are not visible to those outside of the the wood/forest.

    Hull down

    Hull down is a tactical position for an A .F.V. where the gun is exposed for firing and the hull is concealed behind cover. See diagram above.

    Turret down Turret down is a tactical position for an A.F.V. where the commanders copula is exposed for observation and firing of the turret top mounted weapons. The remainder of the turret and the hull are concealed behind cover and is unable to fire unless the target is on higher ground. See the diagram below, a minimal target area is exposed but still prone to direct fire.

  • 7

    A A.F.V. in the turret down position will expose a larger target area when seen form higher ground, this area is the same as the hulldown position. Because the target is higher the A.F.V. in the turret down position can return fire by raising the barrel.

    Camouflage Under combat conditions all combat troops and vehicles will be to some degree camouflaged, some more than others due to various circumstances. As this is the case camouflage is taken into account in the rules.

    Camouflage nets When halted for any length of time troops will move into cover and where possible erect camouflage nets. This will give added cover from view. Where points have been paid to use camouflage nets the visibility ranges are halved.

    Camouflage nets take one bound to take down and pack away with no other action taken by the vehicle/gun crew. Camouflage nets take two bounds to erect with no other action taken by the vehicle/gun crew.

  • 8

    Requests for Artillery support

    General A element making a request must remain stationary until the requested support arrives. If the requested support needs adjusting the same element must remain stationary until it is corrected.

    An element making a request must survive the bound for the message to be relayed. If the element is destroyed or neutralised then the request is terminated.

    When a request for Artillery is made the following should be noted. The target i.e. geographical feature/point on the map and the type of munition.

    One element can make one request per bound. Once the support arrives the element can make a new request.

    A battery can only carry out one request at a time. Firing for a given duration. Once finished it is ready to receive a new request.

    Indirect fire cannot be requested until a target has been spotted. Except for on call indirect fire missions which can be called up to give support in an attack on a position where enemy troops might be in cover.

    Artillery fire mission requests Mortars indigenous to a Infantry Battalion can only be requested by troops within its own Battalion.

    Artillery under command can only be requested by troops it is assigned to support.

    Artillery under direct and general support can be requested by any troops in a players army.

    Forward Observation Officers ( FOOs ) of a battery can always request a fire mission regardless of the type of support the battery is in .

    Allocation of fire Troops below Divisional Commander will only be allocated one battery per fire mission/request.

    A Divisional Commander can request all batteries of the same Battalion to fire at the same target. .

    There is a delay between making a request and the support arriving. The delay periods are set out below. Pre-planned fire mission.....................................................When planned On call, less than 5 kilometres............................................Same bound On call over 5 kilometres....................................................One bound delay Target of opportunity Firing on table.....................................................................One bound delay Firing off table.....................................................................Two bounds delay These delay periods should be noted when making a request

  • 9

    Duration of support Due to the limited amount of ammunition a battery has at its disposal the duration of support tends to be finite. The duration of support for a given type of support and rate of fire is set out below. Type of support Mortars/under command Direct support General support Rapid fire 5 bounds 3 bounds 2 bound Sustained fire 8 bounds 6 bounds 4 bounds Harrassing fire As long as the fire mission is planned for or required, it can be for a

    Whole game.

  • 10

    Starting the game

    Prior to any set up on the table the weather is decided as per the season and the region in the world. If desired the time of day. Having set the atmosphere for the game the troops can be set up.

    All troops start the game from the edge of the table apart from reconnaissance troops.

    A reconnassiance platoon /unit can start on table within a players own third unless on foot then the reconnaissance troops will start within a players own quarter of the table.

    In a attack/defence game the troops defending do not have to be placed on the table for the first three bounds but their positions must be noted on a map of the playing table. The exception being where a pre-game reconnaissance has been carried out then the pre-game reconnaissance rules apply or the troops are in such a position that they would be seen. All off table troops must have their distance off table recorded plus any attachments .

    Sequence of play

    1) Both players request Artillery fire noting the target, type of fire, ammunition. Any observers making a request that are destroyed this bound have their request terminated. Any neutralised from the last bound cannot request support or direct any corrections.

    2) Artillery fire and correction to any previous requests. Any elements that are within or passed through the beaten zone test for effect. Batteries neutralised last bound cannot fire this bound.

    3) Check morale where required from last bounds direct fire and this bounds indirect fire. All actions take immediate effect

    4) Movement of ground troops eligable to move. If neutralised by Artillery this bound troops cannot move this bound. Any morale results requiring a action this bound are carried out

    5) Anti tank fire and casualty results concluded.

    6) Anti personnel fire. Fire and casualty results concluded.

  • 11

    Indirect fire

    Indirect fire is carried out by Artillery on or off table as well as Medium and Heavy mortars by a element that is qualified to request and direct the fire.

    Artillery support cannot exceed the ratio of one battery off table for each Infantry or Armoured company, excluding the indigenous mortars of a Infantry battalion.

    Types of indirect support Indigenous mortars within a Infantry battalion can only be requested by a Infantry element of that same Battalion, but the request may be made on behalf of another unit.

    A battery under commmand has been assigned to support a specific unit whether it is a Infantry or Armoured Battalion or Company. No element from another unit may request support from that Battery but an eligible element can make a request in support of another unit.

    A battery in direct support will fire in support of units within the same Brigade or Regiment. Such as a company or battalion. The battery can change support to other units but with a delay of 1 bound for the arrival of the fire.

    A battery in General support is assigned to give divisional support. All guns or howitzers over 152mm, mortars over 160mm and all salvo rockets come under general support. All of the above can use all three types of fire mission.

    Types of fire missions Fire missions come under four basic headings. Pre-planned, on call, target of opportunity or harrassing.

    A target of opportunity fire mission is support that has not been planned. The normal request rules apply where the player notes the rate of fire, target and type of ammunition. Deviation is rolled for with this type of fire mission.

    Pre-planned fire missions are assigned to fire for a specific number of bounds at a specific target according to a set schedule, i.e. for three bounds at the farm on the hill starting in the third bound. This type of fire is generally used by attackers in attack and defence games. All details for pre- planned fire missions must be noted before the game starts. This should include when the fire is meant to commence, the target, the rate of fire, how long the fire is meant to last. If the fire is a rolling barrage then the rate of advance needs to be included and finally the type of ammunition.

    On call mission are similar to pre-planned fire missions except that the battery will not fire unless requested. It is assumed the battery is locked onto the specified target at all times unless the schedule requires the target to be changed i.e. bound 1 3 locked onto the farm on the hill. Bound 4 6 front of wood, bound 7 9 aim at edge of town, etc.

    For pre-planned and oncall fire missions there is no deviation for the fire.

  • 12

    Harrassing fire is fire which can be pre-planned that is aimed at likely routes of a opponents advance. The same rules apply for pre-planned fire missions except the rate of fire is at a harrassing rate that is intended to impede an advance rather than inflict casualties. A battery on this type of fire mission would be in general support and can be requested to fire on another target of opportunity at any time in the game. Once carried out the battery will proceed with the harrassing fire. When changing from one target to another there is a delay of two bounds each time.

    Counter Battery Counter battery fire is artillery fire aimed at an opponents batteries with the aim of destoying them. Counter battery fire cannot be requested in support of other troops.

    Visual location This can only be carried out by Artillery and Mortar observers. This type of location is limited to clear, overcast and hazy weather conditions out to maximum ranges for these type of conditions set out in the visibility rules.

    When a battery is set up ready to fire the distance between each artillery piece is 25 metres. The distance between each battery in the same Artillery battalion is 500 metres maximum.

    Counter battery fire will only use ground burst H.E. Where the crew of Guns, Howitzers and Mortars that are completely exposed i.e. as in the case of towed artillery and also those of salvo rockets count as standing in the open when under fire.

    Rates of fire Guns, Howitzers and Mortars fire at a set rate as a unit i.e. as a battery, half battery or in pairs. When a fire mission is requested the rate of fire has to be noted. The different rates of fire are below and casualties are calculated fort he rate of fire.

    Rapid fire This is intended to lay down the maximum fire power onto a specific target either as final defensive fire, fire aimed at armoured units or troops in defences and in buildings.

    Sustained fire This type of fire is intended to keep a steady rain of fire on the enemy troops so as to inhibit their actions.

    Harrassing fire This type of fire is intended to be a nuisance so as to slow the enemy down by firing at strategic points on the battlefield. This type of fire is not intended to kill but is a threat while at the same time conserving ammunition.

    Salvo rockets have the same rate of fire as the artillery above but differ slightly. Rapid fire saturates the target by firing all of the rockets in one bound. Sustained fire is carried out by ripple firing the rockets which takes three bounds and then the launcher is reloaded.

    The duration for the different rates of fire are set out in the requests section.

    The reloading times for Salvo Rockets takes three bounds.

  • 13

    Minimum ranges All fire power in the indirect role has a minimum range which is below. Feild guns 2000 metres Howitzers 1500 metres Salvo Rockets 3000 metres Mortars upto 60mm 100 metres Mortars upto 82mm 200 metres Mortars upto 107-120mm 400 metres Mortars upto 160mm or more 700 metres

    Artillery Deviation All artillery fire is prone to some deviation. The amount of deviation depends on several reasons. To determine artillery fire deviation two six sided dice are rolled and the factors are either added or subtracted. The resulting figure is then used to refer to the artillery fire deviation chart. Consecutive fire at the same target can be corrected to bring it on target, the duration of fire cannot be exceeded as that stated in the request section.

    Artillery deviation factors Mortars, field guns,or howitzers firing on table +3 Each subsequent bound a battery has fired at the same target +5

    Counter battery fire Each bound target has fired from the same location. +3 If target is salvo rocket battery firing this bound +4

    Artillery deviation fire chart 0 or less 750 metres long, ( over the target ) 1 750 metres short, ( in front of the target ) 2 500 metres long, ( over the target ) 3 500 metres short, ( in front of the target ) 4 300 metres long, ( over the target ) 5 300 metres short, ( in front of the target ) 6 200 metres long, 100 metres to right. 7 200 metres short, 100 metres to right. 8 200 metres long, 100 metres left. 9 200 metres short, 100 metres left. 10 100 metres long, ( over the target ) 11 100 metres short, ( in front of the target ) 12 or more On target

  • 14

    Readjusting Artillery fire Having got the fire on target the target might move. Whilst still firing within the duration of the support the fire can be readjusted to the right, left, dropped or advanced providing the element that made the original request has been stationary and can still see the target. The distance of readjustment per bound is below.

    Self propelled Howitzers/ guns Add or drop 400, left or right 300 metres

    Towed guns/ Howitzers on a turn table i.e. British 25lb gun or 105mm light Howitzer Add or drop 200 metres, left or right 250 metres.

    Other towed guns, howitzers or mortars Add or drop 100 metres, left or right 50 metres.

    Beaten zones The beaten zones below are for ground burst fired by two barrels.

    Upto 60mm 25 metres X 25 metres Upto 82mm 50 metres X 50 metres Upto 107mm 75 metres X 75 metres Upto 130mm 100 metres X 100 metres Upto 155mm 125 metres X 125 metres Upto 180mm 150 metres X 150 metres Upto 203mm 175 metres X 175 metres Upto 240mm 200 metres X 200 metres Larger 225 metres X 225 metres For every extra barrel of the same battery expand the width by 25 metres, for every extra two barrels expand the depth by 25 metres. For salvo rockets double the above areas.

    Artillery fire effects Having got the artillery/mortar fire on target and measured out the beaten zone areas the effect of the artillery fire has to be calculated. The method of calculating the effect is as follows. Take the artillery fire base factor, make the appropriate adjustments by adding and subtracting the factors. Reaching a final factor use this number across the top of the casualty result chart. Next roll two six sided dice. Add the scores together and use this number in the vertical column on the left of the fire result chart. Cross refer the two numbers and consult the results charts.

    Artillery effects base factor Calibre of Artillery piece Ground burst H.E. Air burst H.E. Upto 85mm 2 4 Upto 107mm 3 5 Upto 130mm 4 6 Upto 155mm 5 7 Upto 180mm 6 8 Upto 203mm 7 9 Upto 250mm 8 10 Upto 300mm 9 11 Larger 10 12

  • 15

    Artillery effects adjusting factors Type of cover Troops on foot halted all of last bound -1 Target in shell scrape -2 Target in trench -5 Target in sandbag bunker -8 Target in reinforced concrete bunker -12

    Type of fire Rapid fire by mortars, Howitzers or field guns +3 Harrassing fire by Mortars, Howitzers or field guns -4 Rapid fire by Salvo Rockets +10 Sustained fire by Salvo Rockets +5

    For each pair of Howitzers, Mortars, or field guns after the first pair +2 For each pair of Salvo Rockets after the first pair +4

    When artillery fire is used against armoured vehicles the side armour class is deducted when ground burst H.E. If the AFV is open topped such as the Halftrack , etc. apply the shell scrape factor.

    Ground burst H.E. of 155mm or larger fired at rapid rate , all salvo rockets over 122mm that land on a road make it impassable to all vehicles.

  • 16

    Morale check

    Reasons for a morale check A ) Company commander destroyed or neutralised last bound in the direct fire phase or this bound in the artillery phase [ company morale check ] B ) Platoon commander destroyed or destroyed last bound in the direct fire phase or this bound in the artillery phase . [ platoon morale check only if the company commander has been destroyed or neutralise]. C ) Company or platoon has elements destroyed, neutralised or suppressed last bound in the direct fire phase or this bound in the artillery phase. D ) Under artillery this bound or flame attack from last bound

    Level of morale check All morale checks are taken at Company level for units of company strength unless the platoon commander of a reconnaissance was destoyed or neutralised last bound in the fire phase or this bound in the artillery The exceptions are Special Forces who have morale checks at Platoon or section level and aircraft which have their morale checked individually. Individual elements such as forward observation officer that are not with other units such as a platoon or company check their morale individually. If they are attached to another unit then the whole unit will check its morale.

    Vehicles and AFVs carrying passengers are considered as a whole for morale purposes. Once dismounted the vehicles and Infantry are treated as seperate units.

    The troops in buildings factor applies only to troops in a building with four walls to it. If the building is destroyed i.e. rubble or only partly destoyed the building is then treated as field defences.

    All morale check actions and effects last one bound unless specified such as the -1 to -3 and less than -3 ruling.

    Elements on foot whether in trenches or in the open, also troops in soft skinned vehicles and open top AFVs are automatically neutralised by rapid fire artillery with airburst or ground burst HE or Salvo rockets.

  • 17

    Concluding the morale check Total up the factors for all of the situations and circumstances affecting the unit i.e. regular troops, in field defences, under air attack with naplam, 50% of platoon neutralised, total minus 11. Add the score from two ordinary six sided die then consult the casualty result chart.

    Moral check factors Militia -2 Conscripts, Terretorials or Reservists -1 Regulars or Penal Battalion troops 0 Marines, Commandos, Paras or Legionairres, Gurkhas, SS +1 Special Forces i.e. SAS, Green Berets +2 Troops in field defences such as a trench +3 Troops in buildings +2 Troops in a shell scrape +1 AFV hulldown +1 AFV turret down +2 Under artillery attack or sustained salvo rocket attack -2 Under rapid fire Salvo -4 Troops or vehicles destroyed by mines -2 If element/unit is more than 500 metres from the company commander -1 If the company commander is killed or neutralised -2 For every 25% of the company , platoon or battery killed or neutralised -3 For every 25% of the company, platoon or battery is suppressed -1

    Morale check results 10 or more: Obey orders unless affected by mines then can half advance. 6 to 9 : Half advance unless affected by mines then will halt. 3 to 5 : May advance to cover within half a bound or halt and fire if affected by mines will halt. 0 to 2 : Halt, if firer can be seen can return fire. If unable to see the firer the unit can seek cover

    within half a bound to the flanks or rear. -3 to -1 halt, will seek cover within half a bound to the flanks or rear. Will not advance without taking

    a further moral check. -3 to -6 Halt, will seek cover with in half a bound to the flank or rear. Will not advance for the rest

    of the game, Infantry must deploy. Can defend themselves Less than -6 Infantry on foot or in defences will not move or fire for the rest of the game. Infantry within

    25 metres of a stable enemy unit will surrender. AFVs will retreat back to the base line.

  • 18

    Movement

    Troops on foot Infantry and other elements not carrying heavy support equipment move at 150 metres per bound on the road and 100 metres per bound across country.

    Elements on foot with heavy support weapons and equipment such as HMG on wheels move at 100 metres per bound on the road and 75 metres per bound across country.

    Elements debusing from a open top vehicle or enclosed vehicle via roof hatches such as a Halftrack take of a bound regardless of the number of troops in the vehicle. Troops in a large enclosed vehicle such as a LVT take bound to debus.

    Troops enbusing a open top vehicle or one where they have to debus via roof hatches take one bound regardless the number of troops.

    Troops on skis move at 150 metres per bound, troops on snow shoes move at 100 metres per bound. Troops on foot in snow move at 50 metres per bound. Heavy weapons on skis move at 100 metres per bound.

    Vehicles The speed for AFVs on a road and in reverse is in the data lists for each AFV.

    Cross country movement for wheeled vehicles is half the road speed.

    Cross country movement for tracked AFVs is of the road speed.

    Maximum speed in fog, snow and at night without any night driving lights is 300 metres per bound.

    Vehicles towing move at a maximum speed of 900 metres.

    Soft skinned vehicles move at 1000 metres per bound on the road. Across country in good going half speed. Across country in wet weather the maximum speed is a 350 metres.

    Motor bikes move at 1000 metres on road and 350 metres across country.

    Animals Camels and horses move at 750 metres per bound if they have riders. If they are towing equipment they move at 500 metres per bound.

    Set up times Towed guns, howitzers, AAA gun systems upto 88mm take one bound to set up.

    Towed guns, howitzers, AAA gun systems over 88mm take two bounds to set up.

    Towed salvo rocket launchers take three bounds to set up.

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    Effects of terrain Hills, rough ground, forests, palm trees, fording a river, turning through 180, moving through a marsh, and moving from a stationary postion halves a vehicles speed.

    A linear obstacle such as stream, stone wall, hedge, barbed wire, leaving or joining a road in a European environment/theatre reduces a vehicles speed by a . Linear obstacles as above reduce a element on foot speed by 50%.

    Soft skinned vehicles cannot negotiate stone walls, streams, marches, hedges.

    Amphibious operations

    AFVs with fording /wading kits move at 50 metres per bound when fording.

    Troops on foot fording or wading move at 25 metres per bound.

    Amphibious vehicles such as 4 ( Buffalo ) move at 100 metres per bound in the sea and 200 metres per bound in a river.

    Landing craft move at 250 metres per bound. Troops and vehicles take one bound to disembark.

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    Direct fire

    General The direct fire section is divided into two phases. The first phase is the barrelled anti tank fire, the second phase is anti personel Each phase has its own factors and rules.

    Anti Tank Arc of attack for a AFV

    The image on the left shows the arcs of attack for a AFV. Each arc is 90. Each arc is taken from the turret aspect and not the hull. The armour on a hull varies with thicker armour across the front and towards the front of the side armour. The rear has the weakest armour. When there is doubt about the arc of attack use a protractor to determine the angle.

    Armour classes All armour classes take into consideration the slope of the armour, both vertically and horizontally and any add on armour

    AFV size The size of a AFV on the frontal arc and hull down is already in the data lists. For the size of a vehicle from the side increase the size scale by two sizes, i.e. a tank is F on the front, going up two sizes increase the side aspect to a H. For AFVs hull down the size is the same on the side and rear of the turret.

    Top armour The armour class for each AFV is given in the data lists for the front, side and rear. The top and floor armour is needed for calculating attack by mines. Front arc armour floor armour 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 1 7,8,9,10, 11, 12 2 13+ 3

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    Formula for calculating anti tank casualties Take the factor on the anti tank base number chart for that particular weapon i.e barrelled gun, r. and against the correct calibre and the correct ammunition type . Subtract the armour class of the target, add or subtract the fire factors for both the firer and the target. Include the target size, speed etc. With the resulting score apply this across the top of the casulty result chart. Role two six sided dice and apply this score down the side of the casualty result chart. Cross refer these numbers for the casualty result. With the given abbreviation read the resulting effect.

    Towed and vehicle mounted barrel anti tank fire.The ranges across the top are in metres

    250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 .5mm/12.7

    2 1 14.5mm/15mm

    3 2 1 20mm/23mm

    5 4 3 2 25mm

    6 5 4 3 30mm

    7 6 5 4 3 2 35mm 37mm

    8 7 6 5 4 3 2lb or 40mm

    9 8 7 6 5 4 45mm, 47mm

    10 9 8 7 6 5 50mm

    11 10 9 8 7 6 6lb or 57mm

    12 11 10 9 8 7

    17lb, 75mm, 76mm, 77mm HVAP 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 Short 75mm

    13 11 9 7 Panther 75mm

    17 15 13 11 9 8 7 5

    APHE/APC 14 13 11 9 7 5 3 1

    80mm To

    85mm HVAP/ APDS 14 10 8 6 4 2 1 1

    APHE/APC 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8

    25lb, 88mm To

    90mm HVAP / APDS 15 14 13 11 9 7 5 3

    APHE 16 15 13 11 9 7 5 3

    100mm HVAP 16 15 13 11 9 7 5 3

    APHE/APC 17 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 HVAP 17 16 14 12 9 7 5 3

    120mm Or

    122mm

    127mm or 130mm

    APHE 18 17 15 13 11 9 7 5

    150mm Or

    152mm

    APHE 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6

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    Infantry anti tank The ranges across the top are in metres.

    25 50 100 150 200 250 300 Improvised anti tank # 1 Anti tank grenade 10 PIAT, HEAT 10 7 5 3 1 Bazooka HEAT 12 10 8 6 4 2 1 Panzerfaust 30/60, HEAT 10 6 Panzerfaust, HEAT 15 10 7 Panzerschrek, HEAT 12 10 8 6

    Raketenpanzerbchse, HEAT 15 13 11 9 7 5 3

    # Improvised anti tank are Molotov Cocktails etc.

    Anti tank firing factors: Firers factors: Firing on the move Firer unstabalised moving across country -3 Firer moved between 150 450 metres this bound -1 Firer moved between 451 900 metres this bound -2 Firer moved between 901 1350 metres this bound -3 Firer moved more than 1350 metres this bound -4

    If performed a popup move -1 Anti tank grenade against a open top AFV +1 Firer suppressed -1 Firer neutralised -3

    Target factors : A transient target which emerged from, passed behind or ended in cover this bound -1 Target perfomed a pop up move, i.e. emerged from cover and then moved back into cover -4 Target moved up to 300 metres this bound -1 Target moved up to 600 metres this bound -2 Target moved up to 900 metres this bound -3 Target moved up to 1200 metres this bound -4 Target moved over 1200 metres this bound -5 Target obscured by dust, i.e. seen through a artillery barrage -1 Target to rear of turretless vehicle i.e. 180 from the barrel -1 Foliage cover within temperate or arctic zone in winter -1 Foliage cover within other regions and temperate zones in summer -3 Target layed smoke this bound from smoke dischargers or exhaust -3 Target fired and then layed smoke this bound -1 HEAT such as PIAT and Bazooka against spaced armour -4

    Target size A size target = -5 F size target = 0 B size target = -4 G size target = +1 C size target = -3 H size target = +2 D size target = -2 I size target = +3 E size target = -1

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    Anti personnel /Infantry fire

    Formula for calculating anti personel fire Anti personel/Infantry fire is done enmass. First decide which elements are going to fire at a target. For each element firing take the base fire factor then add or subtract the fire factors according to the target and firer. With the calculated result for each element combine the scores together and use this score across the top of the fire result chart. For two elements that come out at a zero count these combined scores as one. Role two six sided die and use this score on the vertical column on the left hand side. Cross refer these two scores for the casualty result.

    All of the ranges on the top row are in metres

    25 50 100 200 300 600 1000 1500 3 4 man riflegroup 7 5 3 2 1

    3 4 man sub machine gun group 10 5 3 2 1

    LMG group 8 7 7 6 5 2 S.F.M.G. /Tripod MG 8 6 6 6 6 5 4 3 Co-axle or bow mounted MG 1 5 5 5 4 3 2 1 Pivot or roof mounted MG 7 6 6 6 5 4 3 2 Infantry Light mortar 0 3 3 3 3 2

    Flame thrower * AFV 10 8 6*

    Upto 60mm 3 4 4 3 3 2 1 0 Upto 85mm 4 5 5 4 4 3 2 1 Upto 107mm 5 6 6 5 5 4 3 2 Upto 130mm 6 7 7 6 6 5 4 3 Upto 155mm 7 8 8 7 7 6 5 4

    Direct fire H.E.

    Over 155mm 8 9 9 8 8 7 6 5

    Firer Firing on the move -3 For every extra machine gun on the same mount or vehicle +2 Firer supressed -1 Firer neutralised -5

    Target Target halted this bound -1 Target in a shell scrape or behind a brick or stone wall or in a building -2 Target in a trench or a demolished building ( rubble ) -3 Target in a timber or sand bag bunker -6 Target in a reinforced bunker -8 Target in foliage in a temperate or arctic zone in winter -2 Target in foliage in other regiones and other seasons -4 Target to the rear 180 of a turretless AFV -2 Target screened by smoke for a consecutive bound -5

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    Supressive fire

    Supressive fire is unaimed fire directed at a area that could be cover for enemy elements on foot. The cover could be the edge of a wood, wall, hedge, a building, etc. Supressive fire is carried out at differnet ranges for different types of weapons. 300 metres for Infantry elements, bow or coaxle MGs. Formula for calculating Supressive fire The firer selects which elements are to fire and at which point they are going to fire, this point is the centre of the suppressive fire area. The factors are calculated for each element as normal for anti personnel / Infantry fire. Having totalled up the factors for each element. For each point a linear line of 25 metres is supressed. As a example, a area has 7 supressive points aimed at it. This gives a linear area of 175 metres that is suppressed. Any elements in this area are automatically suppressed. Each elements is also diced for to see if they are neutralised or destroyed. The factor used on the casualty result chart is one.

    Engineering

    Mine Clearing Mine clearing can either be carried out by designated Engineer figures who will clear a path through a mine field 25 metres X 25 metres in 2 bounds. Other troops clearing mines with bayonets etc will take 4 bounds to clear a area 25metres X 25 metres. A flail tank will clear a area 25metres X 25 metres in 1 bound.

    Defences Dragons teeth and metal anti tank constuction will halt any AFV.

    Infantry will take one bound to dig a shell scrape. 5 bounds to dig a trench and mortar pit.

    Barbed wire takes 3 bounds to set up a length of barbed wire 25 metres long.