Avoiding Plagiarism and Maintaining Academic Integrity by Marian Butler.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Avoiding Plagiarism and Maintaining Academic Integrity by Marian Butler </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> OK or not OK? I changed a few key words from a quote and wrote it into my assignment with the author, page and date. I didnt manage to complete the prac, so my friend lent me his/her results. My house mate did the course last year and generously gave me his/her answers to tutorial problems. I didnt have time to read all the sources I would have liked, so I included secondary sources as though they were primary sources. No one will ever know right? </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> How about these? My phone has ample storage for formulae and definitions a great help in tests We hid the books we needed in a corner of the library so that our group could find them, but other people had no idea where they were! My Aussie friend is fantastic, she just proof reads and edits my assignments as long as I get them to her in time! </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Academic integrity is an issue when students: Copy the work of authors Work together and submit the same work Copy another students work Buy, are given or steal essays &amp; submit them Take notes into exams or have someone else sit it for you Make up references Hide library books or cut out pages or delete texts Lie about medical conditions to get extensions Have someone make major corrections to their assignments Zeegers et al (2008: 106) </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Why all the fuss? University degrees are: highly valued in the community evidence of an ability to think at a high level: independently, creatively and critically passports to professions (to work in high risk, complex or sensitive situations) </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Why all the fuss? A degree that is ill gotten means that the holder: receives undeserved recognition may not be able to engage in high level thinking may have inadequate knowledge or skills dangerous? UNIVERSITIES TAKE ACADEMIC INTEGRITY VERY SERIOUSLY </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> UQ Policy: Ethical and honest behaviour and treatment underpin the University's relationship with its students and preserve the value and quality of learning. University Handbook of Policies and Procedures (2008) </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Penalties include: Fail the piece of work Fail the subject Exclusion from the course Suspension from the school Withholding results Further work required Exclusion from the university (severe cases) </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Maintaining ethical standards Know what constitutes misconduct Dont lend assignments, prac reports etc to people (even desperate, good friends) Start tasks when you get them Task analyse chip away at them slowly- semester planner? Take study seriously at least a full time job Ask if unsure Lending your work to the desperate can get you into as much trouble as the desperate! </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> UQ Policy All University community members share responsibility for maintaining the academic standing of University of Queensland degrees. Students have a responsibility to maintain the highest standards of academic integrity in their work. Students must not cheat in examinations or other forms of assessment and must ensure that they do not plagiarise. University Handbook of Policies and Procedures (2008) </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Some links to consider.. 2/3 of teachers in a survey in the US attributed plagiarism to poor time management There is a strong link between a very active extra curricular life and academic dishonesty including team membership, socialising, and other forms of entertainment like TV watching One study found that students who are dishonest in class are more likely to engage in fraud and theft on the job when they enter the workplace! </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> What is plagiarism? The University of Queensland definition: "Plagiarism is the act of misrepresenting as one's own original work the ideas, interpretations, words or creative works of another. These include published and unpublished documents, designs, music, sounds, images, photographs, computer codes and ideas gained through working in a group. These ideas, interpretations, words or works may be found in print and/or electronic media." </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> In brief you plagiarise when you: Use anothers work and do not reference the source, for example: *you copy *summarise without referencing *use/develop someone elses idea without referencing it *use experimental results without referencing Always acknowledge the source of your information </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> What do you think? Mosis referenced in the text each time he referred to an authors ideas. Each time he wrote the ideas of an author, he was careful to change at least one or two words per sentence. He included all authors he had referred to in his reference list. His lecturer gave him zero on his assignment, claiming that he had plagiarised. Guilty? </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> What do you think? Marcia referenced all the direct quotes in her assignment, but did not reference the ideas she had taken from texts when she had written them in her own words. Her lecturer was unimpressed. mean lecturer or academic rigor? </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> What do you think? Fernando was delighted to see that an author he read had similar ideas to his own with regards to his assignment topic. He wrote the ideas in his own words, but did not reference them. The lecturer failed him because he did not reference sufficiently in his assignment. Fair? or killing original thinking? </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> What do you think? A student study group discussed their prac results and came to exactly the same conclusions. While their results differed slightly, their conclusions were identical. The students were accused of cheating. The lecturer doesnt understand the value of group work or an example of cheating? </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> What do you think? Students were required to work as a group on an assignment. Some people did not make it to any group meetings and thus were not involved in the write up of the assignment (everyone else wrote parts of the essay). All group members names were on the assignment. Fair?Cheating? </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> But arent I supposed to use the ideas and results of other people in my writing? Yes, to develop a credible and informed opinion, you must build on and use the works of other people. The other important thing is that you transform the work of others so that you can say of your writing, that is my work, not just a summary of the work of others. </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Why Reference Sources? Credibility It shows your familiarity with the experts in the field Allows follow up Ethics and copyright </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> When paraphrasing an authors work: Write without looking at the original Use your own words and style of writing Aim to keep the length similar or shorter Capture the meaning of the original </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Original Version Students frequently overuse direct quotations in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final research paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes (James,1976:46-47) </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, probably only about 10% of the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the source material copied while taking notes. Example of ineffective paraphrasing </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Example of effective paraphrasing Students should take just a few notes in direct quotation from sources to help minimise the amount of quoted material in a research paper. James (1976) argues that students should aim for less than 10% of their final paper being direct quotations </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> How can I ensure I paraphrase correctly? At the note-taking stage, do not take long hand notes, or copy passages verbatim. Make a note of only the authors basic point (no need to use full sentences) Use your own language, youre catching the idea not the phrase Take note of reference details </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> How can you avoid plagiarism? To avoid plagiarism, you must give credit whenever you: Quote from actual spoken or written words Use another person's ideas, opinions, or theories Make use of information that is not common knowledge Paraphrase another person's spoken or written words (UQ Library Homepage) </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> It can be unintentional when. I couldnt think of a better way to explain it Inadequately referencing multiple points from one author Inadequately referencing ideas from more than one author in one sentence or paragraph. </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Referencing multiple points from one author: Use signal words &amp; phrases to show the reader that the points belong to the same author: According to Jones (2007), working in teams has the following advantages and disadvantages. The advantages include such things as . In contrast to these potential benefits, working in teams may result in disadvantages such as . According to Smith (2005), there are three main problems with this approach. Firstly, it neglects, Secondly, . Finally, this approach may result in . </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> More signal words Similar ideas - similarly, in the same way, along similar lines Different ideas on the other hand, by contrast, alternative views suggest Results therefore, consequently Lists firstly, additionally, a further example Also pick up words used earlier and use pronouns (this, these, those..) to help link </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> How can you avoid plagiarism? To avoid unintentional plagiarism: Use quotation marks around everything that comes directly from a text or article Try to summarise ideas and arguments in your own words - don't just rearrange a few words here and there Check that you have correctly paraphrased and acknowledged the original ideas Check your summary against the original text ( </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> How to avoid plagiarism? Critique &amp; comment on the authors you have read Essential part of academic writing Takes focus off simply explaining authors ideas Is part of developing an argument or having a voice Advances knowledge </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Which version shows more thought? Sands (2006: 95) argues that music is a key feature of rituals for people across cultures. Briggs (2004:12) agrees and claims that all rituals have certain musical features at their core. </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Which version shows more thought? Sands (2006:95) and Briggs (2004:12) argue that music is at the heart of ritual, however neither of these authors explain why music is essential, nor do they examine how different types of music might be used by different cultural groups. </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Adopt a thinking not cut &amp; paste approach to writing Cut and paste: Which quotes do I want to use? How many words do I need for that idea? Thinking approach: What are the main issues I want to discuss? What is my thesis or controlling idea? What will I say in this paragraph and how will I link it to the thesis and topic? </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Lets look at example ESSAY TOPIC Plagiarism has now reached endemic proportions and should be punished by automatic exclusion. Discuss. </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Which shows more thought? Plagiarism of printed material has been a problem for many years and has been punished in a variety of ways. Technology has made it easier for students to plagiarise than ever before. This essay will examine how common plagiarism is and what the best forms of punishment are. </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Which shows more thought? While it may be an exaggeration to suggest that there is currently an epidemic of plagiarism, there is little doubt that it is an important concern for educators and that there is an urgent need for it to be addressed, particularly in universities. Since the topic has received little research attention until recently, it is difficult to ascertain the extent to which plagiarism has increased, however it is important to note that the emphasis should rest on developing students skills rather than expulsion. </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Conclusion Know what academic misconduct is Ask if unsure Dont be generous with your work! Reference ideas that arent yours Explain as much as you can in your own words still reference the ideas Know about referencing conventions Maintain high standards of academic behaviour </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Where to go for help Consult the Universitys policy on academic integrity and plagiarism (HUPP 3.40.12) Consult the Library ask for or download their information sheet Consult Learning Assistance in Student Services If you are accused of plagiarism, consult the UQ Union web page under the Education Area to find out what to do </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Tertiary Preparation Courses Preparing for University Success Reading and note-taking Study techniques Getting the most out of lectures and tutorials Study and time management at uni Saturday, 28 February, 9.30 am 1.00 pm Tertiary Writing Course Learn what lecturers are looking for in essays and reports at uni; and How to be an effective and critical writer at the tertiary level. Saturday, 7 March, 9.30 am 1.00 pm Register at: www.uq.edu.au/student- services/prepcourses FREE! </li> </ul>

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