1Plan for today: Discussion Group #1 Pitfalls; discussion group #2 after spring break (no class next week)Basics of Seismic Interpretation (short lecture)Lab #2 part one, faults exercise (begin together, finish on your own just turn in the final map)Synthetics Tutorial TKS (Kingdom Suite)Lab #2 part two, synthetics tie
What do we mean by interpretation?
1) Geophysical interpretation
- Tracing and mapping reflectors
Requires understanding of velocity, geometric, and processing pitfalls
True (but still approximate) cross-sections require time-to-depth conversion and migration
Basics of Seismic Interpretation
2- Identifying reflections
- Structural mapping
- Tying to surface outcrop or drilled subcrop
- pattern recognition seismic facies and sequence strat
- Interpreting the entire stratigraphic section/data volume
- Inferring the geologic history
* Consider scale: regional vs prospect mapping.Requires knowledge of what is geologically possible and what is geologically probable in a given area.
Integration of entire geophysical/geological database
2) Geologic interpretation
In practice you cant 1) draw a good map
until you have 2) identified the reflections
but you cant properly identify the reflections until you have
3) inferred the geologic history
which you cant do until youve
2) guessed at what the reflectors are
and that is difficult unless youve already
1) mapped them
Interpretation is an iterative process
31) have a model in mind2) interpret some data (be brave and use erasers!)3) draw some contours4) discover the model is wrong, and5) go back and redraw.
So, be prepared to :
1) Data validation.
2) Preliminary interpretation.
3) Choose the significant markers you want to map.
4) Pick a section, typically by coloring a trough for each marker (mark faults).
5) Tie to, and pick, the other sections (tie faults).
6) Check line ties and loop closures.
7) Post times to a map.
41) Data validation
Inspect the sections and test data (if available) for proper processing and for any lateral or vertical change of processing.
2) Preliminary interpretation
Inspect the sections for geological plausibility. Preliminary geological inspection.
Begin to work out fault pattern, sketch on map.
3) Choose the significant markers you want to map.
-Choose a reflector that has good continuity and/or character, and that has some significance.
-There may not be a good reflectorin which case you may want to trace a weak event instead, or choose a strong event as a proxy (phantom horizon). Very risky!
-A fairly thorough interpretation will probably include at least three horizons
-Regional mapping: want to be able to correlate across a wide area. If possible, choose major sequence boundaries.
-Name the reflector/horizon.
63) Choose significant markers continued (subsurface ties).Ways to identify a reflection assuming we have depth control from a well penetration:
* Stacking velocities* Sonic log (also 1-way time)
- watch datum, cumulative error, validity check with seismic data
* Synthetic seismogram- consider polarity and frequency spectrum, beware of forcing correlations
* Velocity survey (check shots; 1-way time)
Remember: a dipping reflection on unmigrated data will not tie directly with a well drilled right on the profile. Normally, you tie to off-line wells along strike or along plunge of a structure.
Well ties: migration
7Well ties contd
Tie wells off-line
8L 4 - Well Log Data Courtesy of ExxonMobil
Lithology Logs Gamma Ray
a scintillation detector (similar to a Geiger counter) that measures the natural radiation from a formation
SP (spontaneous potential) a measurement vs depth of the
potential difference between the voltage in the wellbore and an electrode on the surface
For both logs:Deflections to the right = ShaleDeflections to the left = Sand
9Resistivity Logs High deep resistivity means:
Hydrocarbons Tight streaks (low porosity)
Low deep resistivity means: Shale Wet sand
Separation between resistivities means: The formation fluid is different from the
drilling fluid The formation is permeable to the
Deep, Medium, and Shallow refers to how far into the formation the resistivity is reading (4 ft, 2 ft, few in)
Formation Fluiddifferent fromDrilling Fluid
Formation Fluidsimilar to
Porosity Logs Density porosity (solid black line)
measure the bulk (average) density of the formation (rock & fluids)
Neutron porosity (dashed red line) measures the hydrogen content
Deflections to the left = more porousDeflections to the right = less porous
Dashed red left of Solid black black = Shale Dashed red right of Solid black = Gas Sand Dashed red over Solid black = Wet Sand or
L 4 - Well Log Data Courtesy of ExxonMobil
Sonic (Velocity) Logs Sonic (DT)
Acoustic energy emitted by a transmitter, travels through the formation/fluids, detected by multiple detectors
Log displays the interval transit time (Dt) in msec/ft (actually an inverse velocity)
* Vertical seismic profiling (VSP)
- combines best aspects of velocity survey and synthetic seismogram
4. Pick a section, typically by coloring a trough for each marker.
-Where to start? Dipline, off-structure, deepest part of the basin.
-What happens when reflectors split?
- Type 1: no geologic hiatus
sequence thickening or facies changes: go with the flow
-Type 2: geological hiatus
Overstep, unconformity, truncation or toplap: Stay high.
Overlap, onlap, baselap, or downlap: Stay low.
Be consistent throughout the mapping area for each horizon!
Difficult to pick in this direction
Easier to pick in this direction
5. Tie to, and pick the other sections.6. Check tie lines and loop closures.
Use expanding loops rather than contracting loops.Causes for misties:
Static misties (bulk shift between profiles)
Changed recording system between two different surveys
Changed processing parameters
Dynamic misties (variable at different times on a section)
Different stacking velocities in dip and strike-line directions
Paper distortion. Or (digital) data loading problems.
Trying to tie 2D-migrated dip and strike lines.
-miscorrelation across a fault or across facies changes
-picking the wrong cycle on diverging series
-incorrect correlation through noisy areas
OR, problems creating a realistic geological model from a limited dataset.
7. Post times to a map.
8. Contour the time values for each selected horizon.
Use interpretive contouringapply your geologic understanding of structural and depositional style to develop a realistic interpretation of the data. See notes handed out with Lab 1 on contouring methods and advise.
Maps require title blocks!
Title blocks should include: company name, prospect area, geographical location, map scale, type of projection, dates drafted/revised.
Maps with data and contours should also have: name of horizon mapped, interpreter, contour interval. May also need: special notations about the data, definition of any non-standard abbreviations.
Lab 2 fault mapping and contouring; synthetic ties
TKS tutorial synthetics (SYNPak)