BFI 14ICEBREAKERSICEBREAKERS***1AC***3***Status Quo***29Squo= no new ships30Squo= Terminal inaction31Squo wont solve, Icebreakers key to laundry list32Not enough Icebreakers now33No funding now34***Oil Advantage***35Squo = more spills36Lots of Arctic oil37Arctic Drilling Good38Oil dependency kills the economy39Spills coming, squo not prepared40Spills uniquely likely in Arctic41Icebreakers k2 spill response42Oil spills kill biodiversity43Migratory Species44Oil kills U.S. econ and heg45Loss of Oceanic Biodiversity= Extinction46***Shipping Advantage***47Arctic shiping coming now48Arctic commerce increasing now49Shipping low now50Shipping in trouble now51Need safe routes52More Icebreakers k2 shipping53Icebreakers k2 New England ports54Plan k2 new financial markets55Shipping = 90% of global trade56Shipping k2 sustained economic growth57Arctic shipping is cheaper58Shipping k2 global trade59Arctic shipping stimulates economy60Globalized trade solves war61Gloabalization= no military actions62US Economy solves war63***Russia Advantage***64Leadership/Russia Uniqueness, Now Key65Russia beating U.S. now, Icebreakers key66Russia dominating arctic now, multiple ways67Icebreakers key to China68Plan k2 check Russia (competitiveness)69Heg solves china war70Perception of heg decline independently cause wars71Heg solves Russia72Russia War Good73China Scenario77***Solvency***79General Solvency, Laundry List80Now Key, multiple reasons81Now key, Arctic Council82Arctic k2 future resources, no action now, now key83Icebreakers k2 all other arctic policies84***Add Ons and A2s***85Antarctic Research Add On86New icebreakers k2 antartic research86K2 antartic research87Collapse of Antarctic Treaty88Treaty cred k2 Antarctic science89Research k2 biodiversity90Antarctica= Keystone Species91Biodiversity loss = Extinction92Antarctic research k2 Scientific Diplomacy93Science diplomacy solves prolif95Science diplomacy solves warming97Melting ice increases needs for icebreakers98No link to politics99Aff= GOP win100Aff= bipartisan101Plan popular102Private companies cant solve103Inuits say no104A2: ship wrecks105A2: Environment Disad106Non-military = not soldiers107Non-military can still improve security108***Negative***109Squo solves security concerns110Coop now, and key to arctic111No U.S. sovereignty112Oil extraction-> Bad for Inuits113Oil Extraction Bad, Gulf of Mexico Proves114Oil extraction will kill arctic life115Species loss good116No Russian aggression over Arctic117Hegemony Bad (China)118Heg Bad (Iran)120Coast Guard =/= Non-military121Repeal Jones act CP122Consult Inuit Council123Saudi Oil Disad 1NC1242NC Ext.128High oil prices key to the Saudi economy/stability128Oil prices k2 Saudi growth129High oil prices k2 investor confidence130Saudi instability kills world economy131Growth k2 Saudi stability132Russia Disad 1NC1332NC Ext.136US-Russia Arctic coop good136
First the status quo
No support for new icebreakers now and the most recent efforts to allocate funding failed
Fairbanks Daily News 14
The race for the arctic oceans: Alaska cant afford delays in evolving shipping lanes off its north coast Posted: Wednesday, May 21, 2014 12:28 amFairbanks Daily News-Miner editorial http://www.newsminer.com/opinion/editorials/the-race-for-the-arctic-oceans-alaska-can-t-afford/article_e53cd404-e0c1-11e3-b6fb-001a4bcf6878.html
Change is coming to the arctic, and we owe it to ourselves to be ready.Were not talking about climate change specifically, although the residents of Kivalina and other coastal villages are already having to adapt to eroding shores and melting permafrost. Developments in Alaska and across the circumpolar arctic some related to climate change and some not could profoundly alter the way our state works. One change that will be particularly significant is the potential for shipping on Alaskas north coast as sea ice recedes toward the North Pole. During the past 60 years, temperatures in the Arctic have risen twice as fast as in the rest of the world, leading to reduced ice pack off the North Slope as well as around Greenland and Canadas northern islands. In summer months, this ice reduction has the potential to open up shipping lanes that would be shorter and more cost-effective than the bottleneck of the Panama Canal. But for Alaska to benefit from shipping gains, the state will need a deepwater port or ports in the northern half of the state. An Army Corps of Engineers study on such a port is due in a few months, but even given optimistic timetables the quickest estimate for completion is in the neighborhood of 2020, with 2025 or 2030 more realistic possibilities. Efforts by Senators Mark Begich and Lisa Murkowski to drum up interest in Washington, D.C., have met with little success, as legislators from the Lower 48 have yet to be convinced of the value of investing in arctic infrastructure. The delegations efforts to bring more icebreaking capacity online has similarly failed to move, with a proposed bipartisan budget amendment by Sen. Begich and Sen. Murkowski failing to get a vote late last year.
Thus the plan:
The United States Federal Government should immediately fund, build, and deploy a new coast guard Icebreaker fleet consisting of 4 heavy duty and 2 medium duty icebreaking ships.
Advantage 1 is Oil
Arctic resource extraction is inevitable but the status quo leaves the U.S. without a credible response to accidents
Using New Ocean Technologies: Promoting Efficient Maritime Transportation and Improving Maritime Domain Awareness and Response Capability David M. Slayton Research Fellow, Hoover Institution, Stanford University Co-Chair and Executive Director, Arctic Security Initiative Written Statement for the Record to the United States House of Representatives Transport, Transportation and Infrastructure Committee, Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation Sub-Committee 21 May 2014: http://transportation.house.gov/uploadedfiles/2014-05-21-slayton.pdf
When people talk about the resources in the Arctic, it is very easy to visualize drilling rigs, and all of the activity that goes with it to extract energy from the earth, whether it is oil or gas. Nevertheless, there is a lot more in the way of resources in the Arctic. The largest zinc mine in the world is in Alaska, the Red Dog Mine. In Siberia, there are large nickel and copper mines. In Canada, a huge iron-ore mine on Baffin Island. And in southwest Greenland, there's estimated to be one billion tons of iron ore. And this is not just speculation, because the Chinese have seen fit to invest $2.3 billion in southwest Greenland to go after that ore. So when we talk about resources, those are significant, remembering that doesn't account for the resources that are on the sea beds. That too will be of value to individuals, organizations and world populations. And then when we look at the estimates on the undiscovered energy resources, 30% of the undiscovered gas is estimated to be in the Arctic, and 13% of the world's undiscovered oil is in the Arctic. That leads us to the environmental issues once you move away from the resources, because people will be coming for the resources. They already are. What are some of the environmental issues that come into play? As we know - it is still a very, very harsh place. As mentioned, we recently experienced the stormiest year in recorded history. That, coupled with the fact it is dark most of the time. The capacity and capability to move and respond to events in the Arctic, the infrastructure quite frankly is not there, and our Coast Guard has led some exercises there to test and to try to determine how the United States will respond to events that take place in the high North. Another impacted area, the shoreline. Because of the climate change taking place, the shoreline in Alaska is changing dramatically. The ice is breaking off from the shore. In some cases, the ice is crushing into the shore as it moves around. The permafrost is melting and heaving up the earth, so the structures that are already there, are being damaged and in some cases destroyed. In addition, as that permafrost is melting, there are large quantities of methane gas being released into the air. There will be, as the warming trend continues, a movement north of vegetation, migration of wildlife and insects and what will that do with regard to disease factors that may be carried by those insects? So there are many environmental considerations that are going to come into play, how do we respond? What's the best way to respond to them? When we look at indigenous populations in the Arctic, their way of life may be ending, a way of life that for millennia they have lived as subsistence culture of hunting, sealing, fishing, and whaling. Their communities will no longer be in positions to be able to do those activities as before. An estimated four million people live in the Arctic, and that four million is beginning to migrate a bit. In addition to this migration, the resource extraction industries that are being further developed in the Arctic, are bringing non-Arctic populations to the high North. Large numbers of people from Central Asia, Poland, there is even a large Thai community up in the high North areas working on the energy and resource development sites. And it's that population that also distinguishes the Arctic from the Antarctic. Four million people live above the Arctic Circle. No indigenous peoples live or have ever lived in the Antarctic. A lot of penguins, but no people. When we look at the security requirements, the US and other Arctic Nations need the capacity and capability to support, respond and react to the events that are taking place. Moreover, when we look at security - as we have said, it is about safety, adequate and able response for environmental or other accidents that might take place in the high North, and it is the