BIG X Paleontology

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Biblio grap h yo f In do n es ian G eo lo gy




X. PALEONTOLOGY, BIOSTRATIGRAPHYThis chapter of the bibliography contains 139 pages with over 1570 papers. It should be noted that many additional biostratigraphy papers are included under various regions, if they deal with one region only. It is organized in five chapters: X.1. Quaternary, General X.2. Tertiary X.3. Jurassic- Cretaceous X.4. Triassic X.5. Paleozoic X.6. Hominids, Quaternary Mammals.

X.1. Quaternary, GeneralThis section mainly contains papers on the taxonomy of modern or sub-recent microfaunas and microfloras and their distribution in Recent sediments of SE Asia. An understanding of modern biofacies distributions is obviously significant for the interpretation of depositional environments in the geological rock record.

The next three chapters deal with fossil faunas and floras, organized by age. Biostratigraphy is the main tool for age determinations of sedimentary rocks, and good age control is obviously critical for all geology interpretation. In addition, fossil assemblages provide information on depositional environments and paleoclimate. Paleobiogeographic patterns may provide constraints on the reconstruction of the SE Asia mosaic of tectonic blocks (one of the best examples of this is Lunt, 2003).

X.2. TertiaryA vast amount of literature has been published on Indonesian Tertiary faunas. The principal tools for biostratigraphic subdivision of Tertiary sediments in Indonesia are planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils in open marine deposits, complex larger foraminifera in shallow marine carbonates and palynology in non-marine and marginal marine deposits. The basics of the Eocene- Recent larger foraminifera zonation, also called the 'East Indies Letter Classification', were developed in the 1920's. Ranges of the key genera on which this is based are shown in the figure below. More detailed and better calibrated charts like this can be found in the literature but can not be shown here due copyright restrictions.

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Distribution chart of Tertiary larger foraminifera that define the 'East Indies Letter zonation' (Van der Vlerk, 1948) Suggested reading (more detailed list in Van Gorsel 2009, Table 19) Biostratigraphy- General: Larger foraminifera: Van Gorsel (1988) Verbeek (1871-1891), Douville (1905-1924), Rutten (1911-1926), Van der Vlerk (1922-1973), Tan Sin Hok (1930-1940), Adams (1965- 1992), Clarke and Blow (1969), Chaproniere (1975-1994), Haak and Postuma (1975), Ho Kiam Fui (1976), Boudagher-Fadel (1997-2008), Lunt and Allan (2004), Renema (2002, 2007) Bolli (1966), Blow (1969, 1979), Kadar (1972- 2008) LeRoy (1939-1944), Boomgaart (1949), Billmann and Witoelar (1974) Belford (1966), Van Marle (1988-1991) Kadar (1992) Martin (1880- 1921), Oostingh (1933-1941) Gerth (1923- 1933) Germeraad et al. (1968), Morley (1977- 2000)

Planktonic foraminifera: Smaller benthic foraminifera: Molluscs: Corals: Palynology:

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X.3. Jurassic- CretaceousRelatively little has been published on Cretaceous and Jurassic faunas of Indonesia, and references to these are mainly found under the areas in which they occur. The Jurassic in East Indonesia (Misool, Sula, W Papua, etc.) appears to be dominated by open marine facies. Relatively many paleontological papers on ammonites, belemnites, brachiopods, bivalve mollusks, etc., were published, most of them in the early 1900's. Deep marine Late Jurassic pelagic limestone facies with abundant radiolarians and calcispheres are known from Buton, E Sulawesi, Timor, Seram and Misool (Wanner 1940). In these areas the Jurassic is overlain by relatively thin Cretaceous pelagic limestones, with common Globotruncana in the upper parts. In West Indonesia, Jurassic shallow marine carbonate facies are more common, exemplified by papers on corals, foraminifera, etc., from N and SW Sumatra (summarized in Fontaine and Gafoer 1989) and the Bau limestone of the W Sarawak- W Kalimantan border area (Wolfenden 1965, Beauvais and Fontaine 1990) Mid-Cretaceous shallow marine limestones with Orbitolina and rudists have been known from numerous localities across Kalimantan and W Sarawak since the late 1800's (Martin 1888, 1889), and also from S Sumatra (Lampung and Gumai Mts.; Zwierzycki 1931, Musper 1934, Yabe 1946) and the Lok Ulo accretionary complex of C Java (Verbeek 1891). These are generally interpreted as low-latitude Tethyan forms, and are not known from Australia- New Guinea. Today's most powerful biostratigraphic tool in this time interval is probably dinoflagellates. It is widely used in NW Australia and Papua New Guinea wells, but not much work has been done, or published, on this in Indonesia. Suggested reading (see also lists in Van Gorsel 2009) Jurassic deposits General: Ammonites: Belemnites: Bivalve molluscs: Dinoflagellates: Sato (1975), Fontaine et al. (1983), Sukamto and Westermann (1992) papers by Krumbeck, Westermann papers by Stolley, Stevens, Challinor papers by Krumbeck, Skwarko, Hasibuan Helby et al. (1981, 2004), Davey (1988, 1999), Riding et al. (2010).

X.4, X5. Paleozoic- TriassicA fair body of literature exists on Paleozoic faunas of Indonesia, but much of it is in old and commonly hard to find papers, and not written in English or Indonesian. Most are from the Permian of Timor and adjacent islands Roti and Leti, but also from W Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and West Papua. Triassic rocks and faunas have been described from Timor- Roti, Sumatra, W Kalimantan, E Sulawesi, Buton, Buru, Seram, Ambon, Misool, etc. References to these are mainly found under the areas in which they occur. The oldest fossils from Indonesia are Ordovician-Silurian nautiloids, conodonts and graptolites from West Papua. The oldest fossils from Western Indonesia are a Devonian Heliolites coral and a stromatoporoid from a locality in C Kalimantan (Rutten 1940, 1947, Sugiaman and Andria 1999). A Late Devonian brachiopod and a Permian ammonite were reported from the Kalosi region of C Sulawesi by Brouwer (1919), but their localities were never confirmed. They were believed to probably come from a local pharmacy by Von Koeningswald (1933).

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Permian crinoids from Timor (Wanner 1921) Permian deposits are more widespread, including W Papua (Visser and Hermes 1962), Sumatra (Fontaine and Gafoer 1989), W Kalimantan-Sarawak (Terbat Lst; Fontaine 1990, Vachard 1990) and Timor (numerous papers). The classic, rich marine Permian faunas from Timor have been the subject of numerous papers. The E-M Permian of W Sumatra contains reefal and fusulinid limestones and the famous 'Jambi Flora' of SW Sumatra, all indicating a 'Cathaysian' equatorial climate, and showing that these parts of Sumatra were not part of the much colder Gondwana continent at that time. Suggested reading (additional listings in Van Gorsel (2009)). Permian faunas: Permian floras: Fontaine (1986, 1990, 2002, + others), Charlton et al. (2002; Timor), Ueno 2003, 2006), papers by Wanner, Broili, Krumbeck, Gerth, Archbold, Shi, etc. Posthumus (1927), Jongmans and Gothan 1935, Li and Wu (1994), Van Waveren et al. (2007), Playford and Rigby (2008) Wanner (1907, 1931), Zwierzycki (1925), Hasibuan (2008), Charlton et al. (2009; Timor) Welter (1914, 1915), Vachard and Fontaine (1988), Martini et al. (2000), Haig et al. (2007), Sashida et al. (1999), etc.

Triassic General:

Triassic Limestone faunas:

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X.6. Hominids, Quaternary MammalsIndonesia has long been an area of great interest for the study of the Late Pliocene- Pleistocene vertebrate faunas, including hominids, and their evolution and dispersal from mainland Asia across the islands of Java and farther East. Only a selection of papers (280) from this large field of research is included in this bibliography. Land mammals started to appear on Java, Sulawesi and Flores relatively late in geologic history, at around 2.5 Ma, as these areas emerged to form significant land areas during Plio- Pleistocene tectonic uplift processes and volcanism. Older mammal fossils are extremely rare in Indonesia, mainly a reflection of the rarity of pre-Pleistocene terrestrial deposits in the archipelago. Eocene acanthocerids (Hippopotamus family), common in Asia at that time, were reported from West Kalimantan and from Timor. The latter find is another indication that much of Timor Island was attached to Sundaland in Eocene time. Present-day distributions of faunas and floras still reflect plate tectonic past history. Well-known biogeographic boundaries like the Wallace Line (1869), separating balanced Asian Sundaland faunas from unbalanced island faunas on Sulawesi, Flores and islands farther East, and Lydekkers Line, separating the Australian faunas of Australia and New Guinea in the SE from the impoverished island faunas to its West. The history of Late Pliocene- Recent terrestrial vertebrate evolution and dispersal is best documented on Java, where there is a succession of faunas reflecting island conditions in the Late Pliocene- Early Pleistocene, followed by the arrivals of a more diverse Asian mammal population (including Homo erectus) in the Middle Pleistocene around 1 Ma. Pleistocene vertebrate faunas were from SW Sulawesi, discovered relatively recently, have been interpreted as impoverished island faunas of Asian origin. Early island population