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  • BRATISLAVA INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS

    LEADERSHIP AND AMERICAN POLITICAL CULTURE IN THE 1950S AND 1960S

    CASE STUDY: JOHN FITZGERALD KENNEDY

    BACHELOR THESIS

    BRATISLAVA 2013 PETRA UROIOV

  • BRATISLAVA INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL OF LIBERAL ARTS

    LEADERSHIP AND AMERICAN POLITICAL CULTURE IN THE 1950S AND 1960S

    CASE STUDY: JOHN FITZGERALD KENNEDY

    BACHELOR THESIS

    Study Program: Liberal Arts Field of Study: 3.1.6 Political Science Thesis Advisor: Janet Livingstone Degree to be awarded: Bachelor (Bc.) Handed in: 30.4.2013 Date of Defense: 12.6.2013

    PETRA UROIOV BRATISLAVA 2013

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    Declaration of originality

    I hereby declare that this bachelor thesis has been written only by the undersigned and without any assistance from third parties. Furthermore, I confirm that no sources have been used in the preparation of this thesis other than those indicated in the thesis itself. This thesis has not yet been presented to any examination authority, neither in this form nor in a modified version.

    Date:.. Signature:..

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    Acknowledgment

    First and foremost, I would like to thank my supervisor Janet Livingstone for her assistance, patience and guidance during the construction of this thesis.

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    Abstract Author of the thesis: Petra uroiov Title: Leadership and American Political Culture in the 1950s and 1960s; Case study: John Fitzgerald Kennedy Name of the University: Bratislava International School of Liberal Arts Consultant: Janet Livingstone, M.A. Defense Committee: Samuel Abrahm, PhD., Prof. Frantiek Novosd, Mgr. Dagmar Kus, PhD. Committee Chair: Samuel Abrahm, PhD. Place, year, number of pages: Bratislava, 2013, 44 pages Academic degree: Bachelor (Bc.)

    Key concepts: leadership, political culture, decision-making, society, John Fitzgerald

    Kennedy. The Cuban Missile Crisis, the Civil Rights Movements

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether political culture, which is effected by

    different factors such as the structure of society, religion, public opinion, economy or history,

    could influence the leadership of president. The main period in which these elements will be

    analyzed are the 1950s and 1960s in America, which was experiencing a period of intense

    change.

    The first part of the thesis will consider the theory part about the inception of political culture

    in 1600s when first settlers from England came to the New World to set the first colony and

    new order in the world (Peterson, January 30, 2011). During centuries the political culture did

    go through various changes and in the 19th century Alexis de Tocqueville and his Democracy

    in America is partly considered to be the basis for the understanding of political culture of

    America. The focal point in this thesis is the 1950s and 1960s in America because it would be

    interesting to examine various elements, including decision-making and the situation the

    presidents are put into, and how they can be influenced and connected to each other.

    The research part of this study will be the case study of John Fitzgerald Kennedy. The

    primary goal will be to analyze the behavior of JFK and how the Cuban Missile Crisis and the

    Civil Rights Movements, only marginally, effected how he acted, what were his attitudes.

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    Abstrakt Autor prce: Petra uroiov Nzov prce: Vodcovstvo a Americk politick kultra poas 1950 a 1960; prpadov tdia: John Fitzgerald Kennedy Nzov vysokej koly: Bratislavsk medzinrodn kola liberlnych tdi Meno kolitea: Janet Livingstone, M.A. Komisia pre obhajoby: Samuel Abrahm, PhD., Prof. Frantiek Novosd, Mgr. Dagmar Kus, PhD. Predseda komisie: Samuel Abrahm, PhD. Miesto, rok, rozsah prce: Bratislava, 2013, 44 strn Stupe odbornej kvalifikcie: Bakalr (Bc.)

    Kov slov: vodcovstvo, politick kultra, rozhodovanie, spolonos, Kubnska

    krza, Hnutie za obianske prva, John Fitzgerald Kennedy

    Cieom tejto prce je vymedzi a zisti, i politick kultra, ktor je ovplyvnen rznymi

    faktormi, ako naprklad truktra spolonosti, nboenstvo, verejn mienka, ekonmia alebo

    histria, me ovplyvni vodcovstvo prezidenta. Hlavn obdobie, v ktorej bud tieto faktory

    skman s pdesiate a esdesiate roky 20. Storoia v Spojench ttoch Americkch,

    pretoe ide o dobu pln intenzvnych zmien.

    Prvou as tejto bakalrskej prce bude obsahova teoretick as o poiatkoch politickej

    kultry na zaiatku sedemnsteho storoia okolo roku 1600. V tom obdob, prili prv

    koloniztori z Anglicka do Novho Sveta zaloi prv kolniu a nov poriadok na svete.

    kultra prela poas storo rznymi zmenami a v devtnstom storo. Alexis de

    Tocqueville a jeho dielo Demokracia v Amerike s povaovan za zklad pre porozumenie

    politickej kultry v Amerike. strednm bodom v bakalrskej prci s pdesiate a

    esdesiate roky v Amerike, pretoe bude vemi zaujmav analyzova rzne elementy,

    vrtane rozhodovania a situci, do ktorch je prezident vtiahnut a ako mu by ovplyvnen

    a prepojen medzi sebou.

    Vskumn as tejto prce je predstavovan prpadovou tdiou Johna Fitzgeralda

    Kennedyho. Hlavnm cieom je analza Kennedyho sprvania, jeho postojov voi Kubnskej

    krze a Hnutiu za udsk prva a vedajia analza vplyvov danch situci na jeho sprvan.

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    .

  • Contents

    Declaration of originality ....................................................................................................................... iii

    Acknowledgment.................................................................................................................................... iv

    Abstract ................................................................................................................................................... v

    Abstrakt .................................................................................................................................................. vi

    Chapter One ............................................................................................................................................. 9

    Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 9

    Chapter Two .......................................................................................................................................... 10

    Methodology ......................................................................................................................................... 10

    Concepts of political culture ...................................................................................................................11

    History of the development of political culture ......................................................................................11

    Political culture according to Roskin .....................................................................................................11

    Political culture according to Almond and Verba .................................................................................. 13

    Political culture in theory ...................................................................................................................... 16

    An example of political culture ..........................................................................................................20

    Chapter Three ........................................................................................................................................ 22

    Political leadership .............................................................................................................................22

    Leadership in the United States ..........................................................................................................23

    Definition of leadership ......................................................................................................................25

    Chapter Four .......................................................................................................................................... 28

    Case study of John Fitzgerald Kennedy .............................................................................................28

    The Civil Rights Movement ...............................................................................................................32

    The Cuban Missile Crisis ...................................................................................................................34

    Chapter Five .......................................................................................................................................... 39

    Conclusion ..........................................................................................................................................39

    Resum ..................................................................