# Buddhist Councils_Law_A Manual of Buddhist Historical Traditions

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I - - - - - --- !J t~~' I DELHI UNlVERSITYt LIBRARY

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D ELH I U NIV ER SITY L lBRAR Y

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A MANUAL OF BUDDHISTH IS TOR ICA L TR AD IT ION S

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( S A DDHAMMA - SANGAHA )

fRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH FOR THE nas f TI'\IIEB Y

B IMA LA CH U R N LAW , PH.D., M .A ., B .LFellow. Royal ASiatic Society of Bengal. Fellow. Royal GeographicalSociety. Honorary Correspondent, Arclllleological SUl\ey of IndiaAuthor, Some KsalflYB Tribes of Ancient india, Life and Work

of BuddhBgltosa, A History of Pal. Literature, etc , etc

DLH . UNIV. L IBRY . SY STEMP U B L IS H ED B Y T H E

U N IV E R S IT Y OF CA LCU T TA1941

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P R IN TED IN llooD IAPRTNTIID AND PUBLISEED BY BEtrPIll>DRALAL BAl>I!RJEB AT THII

C AL CU T T A U N IV E R SIT Y PRESS, 4B , B AZR A R OA D, B ALL YGU NO ll, CA LCU TT . .

C U Pre8s-Rpg No 134fB-M&jI.1!I41-1I.

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CONTENTSI'AOIT.

Introduction 1CHAPTER I

Tile Fast Gre a t COUDCII 19CHAPTER II

'I'he Second Council 37CHAPTER HI

The Tlurd Coun c i lCHAPTER IV

The Acceptance of the Cetiyapabbata-vihni a 46CHAP'I'ER V

The Fonrth Couneil

T'he Account of the Writing of ThreePitakas IIIBooks 61

CHAPTER VIIThe Account of the 'I'rauslatiou (If the

A Hh a k a th n on the Th r e e Pitakas G9

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V I CONTEN ' l ' ~CHAPTER VI I I

The A ccolln t of [be T ikas of tb e 'rlJ reePi takaa 83

CHAPTHR IXT h e A c c o u n t o f n i l t h e Books c o m p i l e d b yT h e r a E . 90

CHAPTER XThe A c c o u n t of the A d v a n t a g e s o f Wntll lg

th e Th ree P itakas ~5CHAPTER X I

T h e A c c o u n t o f t h e A d v a l l t a g e s o f H e a l i n gth e P re ac hin g o f t h e N orm 100

T h e C o l o p b o n 1 3 6Inde~ 139

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A M a n u a l o f B u d d h i s t H i s t o r i c a l T r a d i t i o n s

I NTRODUCT IONT he S ad d h am m a -S am g ah a w lr ich 18 a n on -

ca n om ca l P ah w ork of a la te r d a te h a s b ee n ed ite din R om an ch a ra c te rs for th e firs t t im e byN . S ad d h an an d a of Cey lon an d p u h h sh ed In th eJou rn a l of th e P a li T ex t S oc ie ty for th e y e a r 1890 .Th IS wor k , a s i t s u t l e s u g g e s t s , IS a com pen d ium ofth e tra d ition a l h is tory of B u d d h ism . rtf! colophonm en tion s th a t th e b ook w as com p ile d b y th e raD h am m ak rtn of Cey lon a t a g re a t m on a s te ry c a lle dL an k a ram a b u ilt by th e g re a t k in g P a rn m a rs ja .

~h e S add h am m a-S am gu h a p re se n ts u s w tth a .b are ou tlin e o r e c c l e s i a s u c a l an d lite ra ry h is toryof B u d d lu sm d raw n u pon t r a d iu on a l m a te r ia Is .It IS a h i s t o r i c a l re cord of th e p a r t p la y ed byBuddh i sm 10 Cey lon . T h e ln s ton c a l v a lu e of th isw ork is e n h an ced by th e inclus ion of th e a ccou n tof tw o B ud d ln s t Cou n c ils h e ld in Cey lon d u r in gth e re ig n s of D ev an am p iy au ssa an d V a tta g iim lO l.A s reg a rd s th e th re e e a r lie r Cou n c ils h e ld III I nd i a ,i t s a c c ou n t dif lcrs ma t e n a l l y In s om e re s p e c tsfrom th ose fou n d in th e V tnayacuUavagga J m th ecom m en ta r ie s of B u d d b ag bosa , an d III tw o ea rh e rP ah ch ron ic le s , th e Dipa v am3a a n d th e Mah a v am s a . T h IS w ork a lso p re se rv e s v e ry fa r th fu l

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~ BUDDHIST HISTORICAL TRADITIONSr e c o rd s of th e v a n ou s B u d d h is t e s ta b h s hm e n ts o fC e y lon , a n d I t a ls o c on ta in s Im p o r ta n t d a ta fo rth e c h ron o log y of Buddhist kmgs of India andCey l o n . A c a r e fu l s tu d y o f this b ook W Ill s u re lyg iv e u s - ghmpses into th e h is to ry of C e y lon a n d h e rconnection WIt h India. A fte r th e third BuddhistCou n c il w a s ov e r , B u d dh is t nnssionenes w e r e s e n tb y thera Moggahputtatissn to d iffe r e n t c ou n tr te sfo r th e p rop a g a t ion o f B u d d lu sm It w a s d u r in gth e r e ig n of D ev a n am p ry a ti s s a th a t thera Mah i n d aa t th e mstauce 0 1 th em . M og g a h p u t ta tr s a a w e n t toC e y lon a n d W Ith th e k in g s ' h e lp a n d p ro te c t ionin trod u c e d B u d d h ism in to th e Is la n d of Ln n k f Inth rs Is la n d th e o rd e r o f b h ik k h u n rs w a s fir s te s ta b h s h e d b y 'I 'h e r i S a n g b a rm t t ia w h o w e n t toC e y lon W Ith th e B o-tr e e a n d c on v e r te d th e Qu e e nA n u li i w ith b e r m a n y fem a le c om p nm on s T h ea c c ou n t , h ow e ve r , IS w h olly b a s e d u p on th e Maha-vamsa. T h is b ook b r ie fly d e a ls W I th B u d d h a -g h os a 's h fe and h IS v is i t to C e y lon d u n n g th et im e o f M ah lin J .m a a dm itte d ly on th e b a S IS of th eO u la v am aa . T h e on ly n ew p o in t re c o rd e d lS t h a tB u d d h a g b os a m e t B u d d h a d a tta on h 18 w a y toC e y lon . T h e a u th o r d oe s n o t s e em to b e aw a re ofth e fa c t th a t B u d d h a g h os a h im s e lf s ta te s III th ec o lop h on of hIS Vinaya Commentary th a t h eu n d e r took a n d c om p le te d th is w ork d u rm g th e21s t y e a r o f th e r e ig n o f k in g S m p a ia of C e y lon .T h IS w ork fu r th e r g Iv e s a n a c c ou n t o f th e c om -p ila t ion o f th e P a li c om m en ta n e s a n d s u b -

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INTRODUCTION 3commentaries of the three P I takas including otherwell-known Pah works b y the theras, It alsoIuunahes us with valuable information of Maha-vibara, the Abhayaginvihara, the Oenyagirivibera,the Lo h a p a s a d a , the ' I ' h u p a r ama , the Mah am e g h a -vanavihara, the Pubbarama, and other ImportantBuddhist estabhshments IIICeylon. The last twochapters strike the keynote of the SaddhammaS am g a h a . ThIS book consists of eleven chaptersWhICh are eummansed below.

The S ad d h amma - S amga l l a is written III anelegant and simple language. It belongs to theclass of manuals and as such It IS a mixture o fprose and poetry In most cases the prose por t i ons e r v e s only a s an exp l au a t r on of th e poetry por t ion .The author has bo r r owe d VelY largely from theactual texts of th e D i p a u am s a , the Mah a v am s a tthe Atthakathl i a n d o th e r \\ e ll-k n ow n P a h w ork sWhICh are SImply referred to as Por i in i i or ancientanthon ties Th I S m a n u a l contains many dis-courses common to the Mahiibodhwa1'f ! .Sa, tLeGandha l JU111Sa , the Si isana tamsa a n d the l i k e .

CHAPTER I After hIS enlightenment tbeBuddha l iv e d for forty-five years. When he badattained the Panmbbana, seven hundred thousandbhikkhus assembled there Thera Mabakassaps,recollecting the words spoken b y Subhadda, feltthe necessity of reciting the Dhamma and theV i n a y a . FIv e h un d re d arbants w e re s e le c te d inorder to hold a Coun c i l . After the rainy season,

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4 BUDDHIST HISTORICAL TRADITIONSa httle more than three months after the Pa r i -n ibb i ina of the Buddha, tln s COUDCIl was held a tRajagaba Thera Mahakassapa who was voted tothe chair, took the preacher s seat, and askedquestions touching the Vinaya and the Dhamma.Upah recited the Vinaya, and Koanda theDhamma. The five hundred arhants recited to-gether the texts In tbe manner IIIwlneh they werepresented and adopted. The work of the FIrstCouncil was fimsbed after seven months, and thecollecuon of the Vmaya and the Dhamma, com-piled by them, came to be known as theratradinon.Itmay be noted here that according to this

account, the three Pitakas with all their existingbooks and dlVlSIODS were recited III the FIrstBuddhist COllnCII . It IS , however, clear that theauthor bas mtenuonally made a nnstake here bystatmg that all the seven books of the A bhuilunnma-P1 , a ka were also recited III tlns Counc i l ,'I'his statement is III dnect contradictron to thestatement (Ch Ill), that It was 10 tbe ThirdCouncil thai Thera Moggaliputtanssa expoundedKathavatthu III order to put a stop to all dissen-tient Views. The remaimng portion of thischapter IS devoted to an elaborate dreeussron onthe manifold division of the Buddha's word. Thischapter contains nothmg original.

CHAPTI.!lR II A century after the Panmbbanaof the Buddha, the VajJiputtaka bhikkhus of

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INTRODUCTIONVesali promulgated the Ten Points which werenot enjoined upon the bhikkhus. Thera Yasa,who was then staYlDg at the Mahavana, in theI{l1tagiira Hall heard It, and apprebendmg thedanger IIIthe Sasana, the bhikkhus assembled.In order to hold a Council he selected only sevenhundred arhants out of one thousand and twelvehundred blnkkhus who gathered there m a con-ference. These arhants met at Viilukarama.Thera Babbakarm, questroned by Thera Revata,recited the Vmaya, and the dispute on the TenPoints was set at rest. The bhikkhus then recitedthe entire Dhamma and Vmaya. This SecoudCouncil was concluded after eight months.

CHAPTER III Two hundred and eighteenyears after the Pannibbsna of the Buddha, sixtythousand heretics became envious of the gamand honour of the bhi kkhus, and they, too,cutting oITtheir hall'S and putting on the yellowrobes, went about the viharas, disturbed theblnkkhus 111 their practices, and created nuisancein the Sasana. So the bhikkhus were unable toboJd the Uposatha ceremony for seven years.In order to purge the Sasaua of Its blemishes,kmg Asoka called the blnkkhus in an assemblyin the Asokarama under the presidency of 'I'heraMoggahputtatissa, Then did the king question oneby one on the doctrine of the Buddha. The hereticsexpounded then wrong doctrines and the kingAsoka caused them to be expelled from the Order.

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6 BUDDIDST HISTORICAL TRADITIONSWhen th e S a s a n a w a s th u s p u r ifie d , th e b h ik k b u s )m e t a n d h e ld th e U p osa th a c e rem on y . O u t ofS Ix ty h u n d re d th ou sa n d b h ik k h u s w ho a s s em b le dth e re , T h e ra M og g a h p u tta 'I 'i s s a s e le c te d on ly on eth ou s a n d le a rn e d a n d e xp e r t b h ik k h u s IIIord e r toho ld a council, T h e Thud Cou n c il w a s a c c ord -m g ly h e ld a t th e A sok a ram a . I b . t h a t cong r ega -n on T h e ra M og g a h p u tta 'I 'i s s a e xp ou n d e d th eKa t h a . v a t t h u , re fu t m g th e d is s e n tie n t v iew s. T h eb ln k k h u s re c i te d th e D h am m a a n d th e V m ay a ,a c c o rdm g to th e p roc e d u re a d op te d in th e fir s ttw o Oounc i l s . T h e w ork of t h iS Coun c il w asfinished a f t e r Dille mon t h s .

CHAPTER IV A fte r th e T h ird Counc i l w a sov e r , tnisstonanes w e re s e n t by T h era M og ga lip u t taT ls s a In b a n d s e a c h c ou s is tm g of fiv e T h e ra s tov a n ou s p la c e s to e s ta b lis h th e B u d d h a 's re lig ion .T h e ra M a jjh n n t ik a w a s s e n t to Kasmira a n dGan d h ru a , T h e ra M ah a d e v a to M a ln s am an d a la ,'I 'h e ra R a k k ln ta to V a n a v a s i, T h e n . D h am m a -rs k k lu ta to A p

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INTRODUC'lION '1fou r th e ra s a n d a s am a n e ra n am e d S um a n a , a n ds ta y e d on th e M is s a k a m ou n ta in . On th a t d a y ,In L a n k a , a fes t iv i ty c a lle d J e t th am iila took p la c e .K In g D e v a n am p iy a ti s s a , c am e ou t o f th e C lty w i tha retinue of fo r ty th ou s a n d m e n , a n d re a c h e d th eM is s a k a m ou n ta in . A t a p la c e c a lle d th eA m b a tth a la , h e m e t T h e ra M a ln n d a , W h e n th e yh a d c om e to k n ow e a c h o th e r , th e y h e ld c on v e r-s a t ion . T h e th e r a r e la te d th e C llla h a t th ip a d op am aS u tta , a n d th e k in g w ith Iu s fo r ty th ou s a n d m e nc am e u n to th e three R e fu g e s . T h e re a fte r th eth e r a r e la te d th e Samacitta S u t ta n ta a t a g re a ta s s em b ly o f g od s , a n d c on v e r te d m a n y d e v a s ,n a g u s , e tc . T h e th e ia , u iv i te d b y km g D ov a n am -piyanssa, e n t e r e d the C Ity a n d th e p a la c e , a n dre la te d th e Petavatrhu, th e V im a n n v a tth u , a n dth e B a c c a s am y u tta , T h e km g built t i le M a h av i-h a r a a t th e Mah am eg b a v au u -pm k , a u d d e d ic a te dI t to th e O rd e r . N in e th ou s a n d a n d fiv e h u n d re dp e r s on s w e re c on v e r te d a t th a t t im e T h e k in gt h e n bu i l t fo r th e Or d e r th e O eu ya p ab b a tn v ih a r aw h ic h th e O rd e r a c c e p te d . A rit th n W ith Iu s fifty -fiv e b ro th e r s r e c e iv ed Pal iua j j i i [ rom tb e t ho ra , a n db e c a m e arahats

CHAPl'ER V Km g De v u n a r p p i y a u s s a t h e nc a u s e d th e fig h t c o lla r -h on e o f th e B u d d h a to b elaid d o w n In th e 'I 'h n p a ram a , a n d m a n y p e op lere c e iv e d P a b b a jja on th a t o c c a s ion . S u b s e qu e n tlya b ra n c h of a B e -t r e e (ta k e n {10m India) w a sp la n te d w ith d u e c e rem on y , a n d on th a t d a y , th e

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8 BUDDHIST HISTORICAL TRADITIONSqueen AnUla with her many female companionsreceived Pabbajja from 'I'hert Bamgharmtta. T h eking's nephew (SIster'S son) AflttlH1, too, WIthfive hundred men received Pabbajja at that timeUnder tbe direction of Thera Mahinda, k ingDevanampryatisaa then arranged for a council ofthe blukkhus, a n d b u il t a great b a ll in the Th i l p a -ramo. for the purpose. Many bhikkhus assembledIn the ' I ' h u p a r nma . Thera Mahmda took hISseat f a cm g the south, Thera Anttha w a s seatedon the preacher's seat facing the north.Sixty-etght theras headed by Tbera Mahmda wereseated round the preacher's seat The kmg'syounger brother Thera Man t abbayu with f ivehundred blnkkhus was also seated round thepreachers seat. The iemarnrng blukkhus uiclud-m g the k i n g and then attendants were seated IIItheir respective seats. Asked by 'I'her...