Cellular Energy StAIR Chapter 6&7 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

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  • Cellular Energy StAIRChapter 6&7Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

  • All of the images present come directly from your textbook, Modern Biology by Holt, Reinhart and Winston.In your notes write the page number where the graphic is located.

  • Obtaining EnergyATP, adenosine triphosphate is the energy source used by all living things.ATP provides the energy required for cellular activities like:muscle contractionprotein synthesisactive transport

  • Obtaining EnergyAutotrophs use energy from sunlight or from chemical bonds in inorganic substances to make organic compoundsAnimals and other organisms that must get energy from food instead of directly from sunlight or inorganic substances are called heterotrophs.

  • Organisms that produce their own food are categorized how?HeterotrophsAutotrophsChemotrophsMultitrophs

  • Correct!!!You have done a good job paying attention to the material. To move on the the next section click on the play button at the bottom.

  • Try Again.This time read through the questions and answers more carefully.

  • Organisms that eat their food to obtain energy are called___________HeterotrophsAutotrophsChemotrophsMultitrophs

  • Exactly!!!Keep up the good work! Move on to the next section.

  • Closebut no cigar.Think about it. Use any clues you can remember to answer the question correctly.

  • What is Photosynthesis? (PSN)The prefix photo means lightThe word synthesis means to make

  • What does photosynthesis literally mean?To make lightLight making abilityTo make with lightMake plants green

  • Awesome!!!You are so smart. Keep the good work going right on into the next portion.

  • Awe Shucks!Not quite. Maybe you rushed yourself. This time take your time and think it over.

  • Required Materials for Photosynthesislight energyinorganic materialspigmentsenergy storage compound

  • Light energy

    The light energy from sunlight is absorbed by pigments found in plant cells.

  • Inorganic materials

    CO2 (carbon dioxide) is the source of carbon and oxygen for making glucoseH2O (water) is the source of hydrogen for making glucose and the oxygen given off as a byproduct

  • PigmentsPlant pigments absorb sunlightChlorophyll a absorbs indigo and red lightsChlorophyll b absorbs blue and orange-red lightChlorophyll c absorbs small amounts of blue and orange light.

  • PigmentsChlorophyll is located in the plant organelle called a chloroplast

  • Energy Storage CompoundATP, adenosine triphosphate, provides the cells with the energy it requires to make glucose through PSN

  • Which of the following is NOT needed for PSN?WaterSunlightEnergy Storage compoundSoil

  • Correct!!!You have done a good job paying attention to the material. To move on the the next section click on the play button at the bottom.

  • Awe Shucks!Not quite. Maybe you rushed yourself. This time take your time and think it over.

  • Overview of PSNLight energy from the sun is trapped by the chloroplasts and converted into a stored chemical energy (glucose) that can be used by living cells.

  • Overview of PSNEach chloroplast consists of a double membrane enclosing stacks of green disc like structures called thylakoids.

  • Overview of PSNStacks of thylakoids make up granaThe thylakoids are surrounded by a dense fluid called the stroma

  • What are the three parts to a chloroplast?Grandma, thiel, slomaGrana, stacks, stomataGrana, thylakoids, stromaGrains, thylakoids, sloma

  • Exactly!!!Keep up the good work! Move on to the next section.

  • Closebut no cigar.Think about it. Use any clues you can remember to answer the question correctly.

  • Overview of PSNPhotosynthesis can be divided into two stages: Light Reactions and Calvin CycleIn the light reactions, light energy is converted to chemical energy, which is temporarily stored in ATP and the energy carrier molecule NADPH.In the Calvin Cycle, organic compounds are formed using CO2 and the chemical energy stored in ATP and NADPH.

  • Light ReactionsOccur in the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplasts only when sunlight is present

  • Where do the light reactions occur?Thylakoid membranesStromaGranaStroma membranes

  • Awesome!!!You are so smart. Keep the good work going right on into the next portion.

  • Awe Shucks!Not quite. Maybe you rushed yourself. This time take your time and think it over.

  • Light ReactionsLight energy is captured 2 molecules of water are split into 4 H+ (hydrogen ions) and O2 (a molecule of oxygen gas)

  • Light ReactionsNADP (a hydrogen acceptor) bonds with the H+ ions to form NADPH (an energy storage compound) that is used in the dark reactions

  • A molecule of ______ is split and _________ is released in the light reactions.Oxygen, waterGlucose, Carbon dioxideWater, oxygenCarbon dioxide, glucose

  • Awesome!!!You are so smart. Keep the good work going right on into the next portion.

  • Try Again.This time read through the questions and answers more carefully.

  • Dark ReactionsThe reactions that DO NOT require light but can take place in the lightATP and NADPH produced by the light reactions are used to change carbon dioxide to sugarAlso called the Calvin cycle

  • Dark ReactionsIn the Calvin cycle, CO2 is incorporated into organic compounds, a process called carbon fixation.

  • The products from the ___________ are used later in the _________.Calvin cycle, darkDark, lightLight, darkCalvin cycle, light

  • Correct!!!You have done a good job paying attention to the material. To move on the the next section click on the play button at the bottom.

  • Awe Shucks!Not quite. Maybe you rushed yourself. This time take your time and think it over.

  • Dark ReactionsCO2 combines with RuBP (a 5 carbon sugar) to form an unstable 6 carbon moleculeRuBP+CO2 compound breaks apart to form 2 molecules of PGA (3 carbon mol.)

  • Dark ReactionsPGA combines with the hydrogen which is taken from the NADPH from the light reactions and forms G3P (3 carbon molecule)G3P can be used as a nutrient or combined to make glucose or RUBP

  • What is produced from the Calvin cycle?GlucoseRuBPG3PPGA

  • Exactly!!!Keep up the good work! Move on to the next section.

  • Closebut no cigar.Think about it. Use any clues you can remember to answer the question correctly.

  • Chemical Equation for PSN

    enzymes6CO2 + 6H2O --->C6H12O6 + 6O2sunlight

  • What are the reactants of the photosynthesis equation?Enzymes and sunlightWater and glucoseOxygen and waterCarbon dioxide and water

  • Awesome!!!You are so smart. Keep the good work going right on into the next portion.

  • Try Again.This time read through the questions and answers more carefully.

  • Photosynthesis Songhttp://www.edublogs.tv/play.php?vid=880Click on the above link to listen to the photosynthesis song. After listening once just close the browser window and come back to the StAIR.

  • Cellular RespirationThe process by which cells breakdown glucose to release energy and give off CO2 and H2OOccurs in 2 stagesanaerobicaerobic

  • Cellular Respiration: 2 typesAnaerobicOccurs when oxygen is NOT availableLocated in the cytoplasm of cellsInefficient energy producer (ATP)AerobicOccurs when oxygen is availableLocated in the mitochondrion of cellsProduces great amount of energy (ATP)

  • This type of respiration is the most efficient because it creates the most energy.AerobicAnaerobicGlycolysisFermentation

  • Awesome!!!You are so smart. Keep the good work going right on into the next portion.

  • Awe Shucks!Not quite. Maybe you rushed yourself. This time take your time and think it over.

  • Cellular Respiration1st stage is called GlycolysisGlyco= pertaining to sugarLysis= cutting/splittingGlycolysis is the process where sugar is broken down for energyOccurs in the cytoplasm and requires 2 molecules of ATP

  • GlycolysisGlucose breaks down into pyruvic acid4 molecules of ATP are produced

  • GlycolysisPictured to the right is the process of glycolysisOne molecule of glucose enters the reactions and 2 molecules of pyruvate are produced along with a net gain of 2 ATP

  • Since glycolysis uses 2 ATP, what is the amount of ATP that can be used by the cell once glycolysis is completed?343642

  • Exactly!!!Keep up the good work! Move on to the next section.

  • Closebut no cigar.Think about it. Use any clues you can remember to answer the question correctly.

  • 2nd Stage-Aerobic RespirationIf oxygen is present pyruvic acid enters the mitochondria to begin the Krebs or Citric Acid CyclePyruvic acid is broken down to acetic acidAcetic acid forms citric acid

  • 2nd Stage-Aerobic RespirationH2O and CO2 are given off as waste products36 ATP are formed

  • Summary of Aerobic Respiration2 ATP 2 ATP 34 ATP

  • How many ATP are produced from aerobic respiration alone?343642

  • Correct!!!You have done a good job paying attention to the material. To move on the the next section click on the play button at the bottom.

  • Awe Shucks!Not quite. Maybe you rushed yourself. This time take your time and think it over.

  • 2nd Stage-Anaerobic RespirationIf no oxygen is present pyruvic acid is broken down in the cytoplasm by the process of fermentation

  • 2nd Stage-Anaerobic RespirationAlcohol FermentationOccurs in plant cellsProduces ethyl alcoholLactic Acid FermentationOccurs in animal cells (muscle tissue)Produces lactic acid

  • 2nd Stage-Anaerobic RespirationThe build up of lactic acid is what causes muscle soreness after a workoutWhen O2 levels increase lactic acid converts back to pyruvic acid which can then be metabolized

  • Which type of fermentation would you enter after prolonged exercise?AlcoholLactic AcidGlycolysisPyruvic Acid

  • Awesome!!!You are so smart. Keep the good work going right on into the next portion.

  • Try Again.This time read through the questions and answers more carefully.

  • Summary of Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration

    2 ATP

    2 ATP34 ATP

    2 ATP0ATP

  • Balanced Chemical Equation for Cellular Respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2+6H2O+36 ATP

  • Comparison of the Chemical Equations for Cellular Respiration and PhotosynthesisC6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O +36 ATP

    6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2

  • Photosynthesis and Cellular respiration are..Opposites!

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