Cellular Respiration. Cellular Respiration Overview Transformation of chemical energy in food into chemical energy cells can use: ATP These reactions.

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  • Cellular Respiration

  • Cellular Respiration OverviewTransformation of chemical energy in food into chemical energy cells can use: ATPThese reactions proceed the same way in plants and animals. Process is called cellular respirationOverall Reaction:C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O

  • Obtaining EnergyPhotoautotrophs change light energy into chemical energy stored in bonds of glucose and polysaccharides (green plants, cyanobacteria)Heterotrophs feed on other organisms for chemical energyChemoautotrophs microorganisms that can obtain energy from inorganic sources (Fe or S compounds in volcanoes, deep sea vents)

  • Glucose primary source of energy for most organismsCellular respiration process by which glucose is broken down and energy stored in bonds is released, can be aerobic or anaerobicAerobic oxygen used as an oxidizing agent (electron acceptor)Anaerobic uses a molecule other than oxygen as an oxidizing agent

  • Cellular Respiration OverviewPurpose of Cellular Respiration:Trap free energy into forming ATPMove H atoms (electrons) from glucose to oxygen creating 6 H2OBreak bonds between 6C atoms in glucose creating 6 CO2

  • Formation of ATP Substrate-level PhosphorylationATP formed directly in enzyme catalyzed reactionP containing compound transfers P to ADP making ATP4 ATP created this way from 1 molecule glucose2 Ways ATP is formed during Cellular respiration:

  • Oxidative PhosphorylationATP formed indirectly in more complex processco-enzyme NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) removes 2 H atoms and is reduced to NADH + H+ another co-enzyme, FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) also reduced by 2 H to become FADH2these co-enzymes act as mobile energy carriers in cell, moving energy from one stage of cellular respiration to another where its used to create ATP

  • 4 Stages of Cellular Respiration

  • Glycolysis

    A series of reactions which break the 6-carbon glucose molecule down into two 3-carbon molecules called pyruvate.Occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell and is anaerobic.Process is an ancient one-all organisms from simple bacteria to humans perform it the same wayYields 2 ATP molecules for every one glucose molecule broken down (creates 4 ATP but uses 2)Yields 2 NADH per glucose molecule (used later to create more ATP)cellResp_main

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